Chapter 1 Key Terms
Chapter 1 Key Terms GEO 101-007
Popular in The Dynamic Earth
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Geology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Chapter 1 Key Terms
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/01/15
GEO 101007 82815 GEO 101007 Chapter 1 Key Terms Alloy a metal containing more than one type of metal atom Asthenosphere a layer of gases that surrounds a planet Atmosphere the layer of the mantle that lies between 100150 km and 350 km deep the asthenosphere is relatively soft and can ow when acted on by force Bathymetry variation in depth Big Bang Theory a cataclysmic explosion that scientists suggest represents the formation of the Universe before this event all matter and all energy were packed into one volumeless point Core the dense iron rich center of the Earth Cosmology the study of the overall structure of the Universe Crust the rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth Differentiation a process early in the planet s history during which dense iron alloy melted and sank downward to form the core leaving lessdense mantle behind Dipole a magnetic field with a north and South Pole like that of a bar magnet Doppler Effect the phenomenon in which the frequency of wave energy appears to change when a moving source of wave energy passes an observer Earthguake a vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth Earth System the global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth the hydrosphere and the atmosphere Energy the capacity to do work Expanding Universe Theory the theory that the whole Universe must be expanding because galaxies in every direction seem to be moving away from us Fission a nuclear reaction during which the nucleus of a large atom splits to form two nuclei of smaller atoms the process also releases neutrons and energy Frequency the number of waves that pass a point in a given time interval GEO 101007 82815 Fusion a type of nuclear reaction during which the nuclei collide and bond fusion occurs in stars and hydrogen bombs Galaxy an immense system of hundreds of billions of stars Geocentric Model an ancient Greek idea suggesting that the Earth sat motionless in the center of the Universe while stars and other planets and the Sun orbited around it Geothermal Gradient the rate of change in temperature with depth Giant Planet the four outer or Iovian planets of our Solar System which are significantly larger than the rest of the planets and consist largely of gas and or ice Gravity the attractive force that one mass exerts on another the magnitude depends on the size of the objects and the distance between them Heliocentric Model an idea proposed by Greek philosophers around 250 BCE suggesting that all heavenly objects including the Earth orbited the Sun Lithosphere the relatively rigid non owable outer lOOto 150kmthick layer of the Earth consisting of the crust and the top part of the mantle Lower Mantle the deepest section of he mantle stretching from 670 km down to the coremantle boundary Magnetic Field the region affected by the force emanating from a magnet Mantle the thick layer of rock below the Earth s crust and above the core Melt molten liquid rock Metal a solid composed almost entirely of atoms of metallic elements it is generally opaque shiny smooth malleable and can conduct electricity Meteor a streak of bright glowing gas created as a meteoroid vaporizes in the atmosphere due to friction Meteorite a piece of rock or metal alloy that fell from space and landed on Earth Mineral a homogenous naturally occurring solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms ions or molecules in a lattice Most minerals are inorganic GEO 101007 82815 Moho the seismicvelocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the Earth s crust and mantle Named for Andrija Mohorovicic39 Moon a sizable solid body locked in orbit around a planet Nebula a cloud of gas or dust in space Nebular Theory the concept that planets grow out of rings of gas dust and ice surrounding a newborn star Planet an object that orbits a star is roughly spherical and has cleared its neighborhood of other objects Planetesimal tiny solid pieces of rock and metal that collect in a planetary nebula and eventually accumulate to form a planet Protoplanetary Disk the area around a newly formed star that contains material that did not become part of the star but can eventually be used in the formation of planets moons asteroids and comets Protoplanet a body that grows by the accumulation of planetesimals but has not yet become big enough to be called a planet Protostar a dense body of gas that is collapsing inward because of gravitational forces and that may eventually become a star Radioactive Element atoms that spontaneously undergo fission Red Shift the phenomenon in which a source of light moving away from you very rapidly shifts to a lower frequency that is toward the red end of the spectrum Refractory Materials substances that have a relatively high melting point and tend to exist in solid form Sediment an accumulation of loose mineral grains such as boulders pebbles sand silt or mud that are not cemented together Silica SiOz Solar System our Sun and all the materials that orbit it including planets moons asteroids Kuiper Belt objects and Oort Cloud objects Star an object in the Universe in which fusion reactions occur pervasively producing vast amounts of energy our Sun is a star GEO 101007 82815 Stellar Nucleosysthensis the production of new larger atoms by fusion reactions in stars the process generates more massive elements that were not produced by the Big Bang Stellar Wind the stream of atoms emitted from a star into space Supernova a shortlived very bright object in space that results from the cataclysmic explosion marking the death of a very large star the explosion ejects large quantities of matter into space to form new nebulae Terrestrial Planet planets that are of comparable size and character to the Earth and consist of a metallic core surrounded by a rock mantle Transition Zone the middle portion of the mantle from 400 to 670 km deep in which there are several jumps in seismic velocity Universe all of space and all the matter and energy within it Upper Mantle the uppermost section of the mantle reaching down to a depth of 400 km Volatile elements or compounds such as H20 and C02 that evaporate at relatively low temperatures and can exist in gaseous forms at the Earth s surface Wave a disturbance that transmits energy from one point to another in the form of periodic motions Wavelength the horizontal difference between two adjacent wave troughs or two adjacent crests
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'