Chapter 1 Notes- History of Public Health
Chapter 1 Notes- History of Public Health PUBH 102 003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Lopez on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PUBH 102 003 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Galloway in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Intro to Public Health in Public Health at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
WHATIS PUBLIC HEALTH C Everett Koop 0 He was a pediatric surgeon and public health administrator o Served as the 13th Surgeon General for the US during Reagan s presidency o Widely known for his work in prevention of tobacco use 0 He had written about the use nicotine having a similar addiction as seen with the use of heroine 0 Required warning labels that you see today on cigarette packs 0 Challenged his fellow Americans to create a quotsmokefree society by 2000 Images of Public Health quotEmployees must wash hands before returning to work signs No smoking signs quotClick it or ticket signs Sanitation ratings in restaurants and fast food places DHEC in South Carolina Health care Medicaid The quotFive P s of Public Health 0 Prevention 0 Protection 0 Promotion 0 MyPlate promoting balanced healthy eating 0 Fitbit Polar Garmin watches promoting physical activity 0 Prolonging o Prolonging not only life but the quality of life 0 Product Safety 0 Companies like the FDA requiring certain information to be listed on the foods we consume Definitions of Public Health 0 Defining Public Concerning the people as a whole 0 Defining Health A state of complete wellbeing physically and mentally 0 Defining Public Health State of complete wellbeing concerning the people as a whole 0 Public Health deals with making this possible with the 5P s 0 Own definition 99 A science to protect and promote the health of the people and their quality of life in the environment of where the live learn work etc Dimensions of Health 0 Physical to be able to function fully and adequately being free of disease and limitations 0 Emotional to be able to feel and express a full range of emotions appropriately 0 Social to be able to communicate adequately and appropriately 0 Mental to be able to think critically and make decisions soundly o Spiritual 0 Environmental Determinants of Health 0 Lifestyle The 0 Risk Factors 0 Behavioral common causes of illness death or injury 0 Examples I SmokingDrinking I Eating poorly I Sedentary life style no activity 0 Risk Conditions 0 Less likely to be under the control of the individuals unlike risk factors 0 Examples I Biological factors 9 Genetics Age I Environmental factors 9 safe work place HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH Survival Intro 0 Back during the caveman days the number one priority was survival 0 For the population to survive focus has to be on the population as a whole not the individual 0 Early tribes grasped this concept by protecting the mothers and infants 0 This is still currently a major focus in Public Health Requirements for Survival 0 The following are conditions that the population must protect to survive 0 Air I Poordirty air can cause sickness and death in a matter of minutes 0 Water I Poordirty water can cause sickness or death in a matter of days 0 Food I Malnutrition or infected food can cause sickness or death in a matter of daysweeks 0 Shelter I A priority on a minimum ofa seasonal basis 0 Care I No caresupport can lead to a fall in many aspects of health including mental health Public Health Codes 0 Health codes based on society s belief system and their understanding of disease 0 Tribal Rules were passed down orally such as 0 Don t use still or unclear water 0 Avoid certain foods plants or animals 0 Don t allow animal waste inside shelters 0 These oral transmissions eventually became written codes 0 Bible and Koran have detailed food codes Ancient Greeks 0 Timeline 500323 BC 0 Greeks understood the importance of individual health 0 Washing hands 0 Taking a bath 0 Physical Health Olympic Games 0 Greeks did NOT understand germ theory or the science behind diseases at this point in time Hippocrates 0 Timeline 460 BC 0 Was known as the father of Western medicine 0 Researched the casual relationship between disease and risk factors and risk conditions 0 The first to coin epidemic Roman Empire 0 Timeline 23 BC 476 AD 0 Implemented the values of health from the Greeks 0 Development of sewage systems and aqueducts 0 Values taught them that living in their waste was not okay 0 Built the aqueducts to bring water to their cities 0 They collected tax from the people to provide the following services 0 Public baths 0 Water supply to city 0 Market inspections I The first culture to develop this concept I Inspected that vendors in the market were selling good quality food not rotten Middle Ages 0 Timeline 476 AD 1450AD 0 Also known as the Dark Ages 0 Greek and Roman values were not accepted 0 A decline of hygiene and sanitation was seen during this period 0 Believed the physical body was second to the spiritual self I Believed that you were sick not because of lack of sanitation but because of spiritual reasons ie possessed by demons o The people DID learn the concept of quarantine o Learned that isolating ships with diseased individuals helped prevent the spread of the disease going further The Plague 0 Timeline 1348 1530 AD 0 Also known as the Black Death 0 Killed over 13 of the population in Europe and 60 million over the world 0 Two types 0 Pneumonic 9 more contagious air based 0 Bubonic 9 spread by flea bites leaped from dead rats to humans Renaissance Global Exploration 0 Timeline 14001600 AD 0 During this period the arts and exploration had thrived 0 Due to exploration many diseases were spread by traders and explorers unintentionally 0 We see this today in our world such as the spread of SARSFlu across many countries 0 Small Pox was the leading cause of death at this time 0 About 90 of the New World population was killed Age of Reason and Enlightenment 0 Timeline 16501800 AD 0 Known as the birth of modern medicine yay 0 William Harvey 0 Was the first to suggest humans and mammals reproduce by the fertilization of an egg 0 Created theories using dissection 0 Edward Jenner 0 First to coin vaccine 0 Cowpox Experiment I Noticed in his community that people who worked on dairy farms did not get smallpox but instead got cowpox I Cowpox was similar to small pox but not as aggressive I Jenner had injected James Phipps with cowpox and then later injected Phipps with smallpox leaving him unaffected o This proved that cowpox provided immunization from smallpox Industrial Urbanization 0 Timeline 1800s 0 Created a new set of public health issues 0 Slums 0 Poverty 0 Disease 0 Life expectancy at this time was 7 years Great Sanitary Awakening 0 Timeline 1800s1900s 0 Scientific knowledge during this period has grown exponentially o Allowed us to understand the origintreatment of diseases 0 Started to acknowledge the connection between poverty and disease 0 Today poverty is seen as the best predictor of bad health 0 Went back to Greek and Roman values 0 Water supply 0 Removal of sewage A system was created to monitor the health of communities Dr John Snow 0 Timeline 18131858 0 Known as the George Washington of Public Health 0 Made observation about people cholera disease who caught the disease and marked where the deaths occurred 0 Broad Street Pump 0 Tale of epidemiology 0 Snow took a map and marked the deaths of the people from cholera He then went to each household to learn more about the person and household He then took this information to find a common link which happened to be the use of Broad Street Pump 0 When the pump handle was removed the spread of cholera decreased England Sanitary Reform 0 Edwin Chadwick researched and published quotSurvey into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Classes in Great Britain 0 This consisted of descriptions about how dirty air water soil and other surroundings are a major factor in the spreading of disease 0 Led to reforms in sanitation health care treatment of poor and working classes 0 Was appointed Sanitation Commissioner and had many ideas on improvement for Public Health such as o Constant clear water supply 0 Water closets in each house 0 Sewage system to outlying farms providing a natural and cheaper fertilizer US Sanitary Reform o Lemuel Shattuck developed the original plan that eventually led to the establishment of the first Board of Health in Massachusetts 0 Was the first to identify health issues in Massachusetts that could be applied to the nation 0 Establish keeping health records and public health stats to use to fight disease 0 Improve public sanitary conditions by developing sanitary inspections 0 Develop a vaccination program 0 And many more Growth in Scientific Knowledge 0 Louis Pasteur o Discovered the relationship between germs and disease I His work with bacteria disproved the theory of spontaneous generation leading to the germ theory of infection 0 In 1888 Pasteur became the director of the new Pasteur Institute which provided to be a teachingresearch center on infectious and contagious diseases 0 Robert Koch o Discovered what bacteria causes cholera I This advanced the Germ Theory of Disease greatly o Discovered the tuberculosis bacterium Sanitation Revolution 0 Clean water and water treatments 0 Inspections 0 Soaps cleaners pharmaceuticals 0 Personal hygiene o The death rate drops and the average life span increased over the years 0 Lifespan was originally less than 40 and increased to about 74 o Germ Theory of Disease began to shift the job of sewage and garbage removal 0 Used to be health departments and shifted to public work departments Public Health Eras in America o gt1850 o Battling diseases and epidemics 0 18501949 0 Building local and state public health facilities 0 19501985 0 Improving and filling gaps in care delivery controlling infectious diseases surgeon general reports on smoking 0 19852000 0 Health promotions disease preventions multiple risk factor interventions HIVAIDS o ZOOOPresent 0 Preparing for responding to community health threats population health global health health care insurance access
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