First Class Notes
First Class Notes HLTH 4104
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mayah Baker on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 4104 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Huber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Epidemiology in Liberal Arts at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
August 312015 HLTH 4104 Epidemiology Notes What is epidemiology Comes from Greek roots 0 Epi upon among 0 Demos the population 0 Logos the study of The study of the distribution amp determinants of disease frequency in populations Fundamental Assumptions of Epidemiology Disease is not random 0 Disease does not randomly choose its victim 0 There are causal and preventive factors that can help prevent disease Determinants of disease aka Exposure risk factor Infectious agents Environmental factors Lifestylebehavioral factors Examples air pollution HIV alcohol use diet age sexual behaviors etc History of Epidemiology John Graunt 1662 O Analyzed weekly reports of births amp deaths in London 0 Quantified patterns of disease William Farr 0 A physician who wrote up the annual reports of the Registrar General used vital statistics data 0 Known for comparison groups marital status and occupation John Snow 18508 0 Known for testing hypotheses concerning the origins of cholera O Hypnotized that cholera came from the water supply where the water actually came from 0 He is named the Father of Epidemiology Top 7 causes of death in the US 1900 amp 2003 1 Pneumonia 118 Heart Disease 28 39 5quot August 312015 Tuberculosis 1 12 Cancer 227 Heart Disease 94 Stroke 64 Stroke 76 Chronic Lung Disease 52 Diarrhea 63 Accidents 45 Nephritis 59 Diabetes 3 Cancer 45 In uenza amp Pneumonia 27 The chart above shows that communicable and infectious diseases were the main problem in the 1900s It was due in part by the lack of vaccines and preventive care that we have today Chronic diseases are the main problems as for in diseases that we have today Chronic illnesses are something we can t always prevent but we can treat with several different medications As a result of the shift in disease epidemiology was more needed What do epidemiologists ask Who What is causing it How fast is it spreading When did it start Can it happen again What is the outcome How is it contracted Limitations of Epidemiology Causation difficult to establish Lifetime of study and the researcher Meaning if the study is done on newborns and is a lifelong study the research is well into their 30s and the subjects outlive the researcher making it harder for the study to have results Power Strengths of Epidemiology Observations of humans Humans are readily available Humans expose themselves to disease unknowingly
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