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Date Created: 05/05/14
Chapter 6 Consciousness our momenttomoment awareness of ourselves and our environment gt 1 Subjective and private 2 Dynamic ever changing 3 Selfre ective and central to our sense of self 4 Intimately linked to selective attention gt the process that focuses awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others Measuring States of Consciousness 1 Selfreport directly ask people to describe their inner experience 2 Behavioral record among other things performance on special tasks Obj ective but require us to infer the person s state of mind 3 Psychological establish the correspondence bt bodily processes and mental states The Freudian Viewpoint 3 levels of awareness 1 Conscious mind contains thoughts and perception of which we are currently aware 2 Preconscious mental events are outside current awareness but can easily be recalled 3 Unconscious events cannot be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances content it repressed The Cognitive Viewpoint 1 Controlled conscious processing the conscious use of attention and effort more exible and open to change compared to 2 Automatic unconscious processing can be performed without conscious awareness of effort key disadvantage can reduce our chances of finding new ways to approach problems facilitates divided attention perform more than one activity at the same time ie we can talk while we walk Unconscious Perception and In uence Visual Agnosia inability to recognize or interpret objects in the visual field NOT blind Blindsight blind in part of visual field Priming exposure to a stimulus in uences how you respond The Emotional Unconscious Circadian Rhythms daily biological clocks gt Most are regulated by the brain s suprachiasmatic nuclei SNC located in the hypothalamus Melatonin a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body Environmental Disruption jet lag nightshift work Seasonal affective disorder Stages of sleep EEG recordings show a pattern of beta waves when you are awake and alert amp alpha Waves when you feel relaxed and drowsv Sleep begins theta wavesT gt stage 1 light sleep you can easily be awakened gt stage 2 sleep spindles dreams may occur gt stage 3 slow and large delta waves gt stage 4 3 and 4 are sloW wave sleep stages brain activity i By old age We get relatively little of it REM sleep characterized by rapid eye movements high arousal may increase to daytime levels and frequent dreaming Decreases dramatically during infancy and early childhood but remains relatively stable thereafter Why do we sleep 1 Restoration model allow us to recover from physical and mental fatigue 2 Evolutionarycircadian sleep models increases a species chances of survival 3 Memory consolidation brain transfers info into longterm memory Sleep Disorders 1 Insomnia most common 2 Narcolepsy extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks people may experience cataplexy 3 REM Sleep Behavior Disorder 4 Sleepwalking usually occurs during a stage3 or stage4 period 1030 children sleepwalk at least once less than 5 adults do 5 Nightmares occur more often during REM sleep and Night terrors most often during stages 3 and 4 6 Sleep Apnea repeatedly stop and restart breathing during sleep Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory The main purpose of dreaming is wish fulfillment Dream s 1 manifest content and 2 latent content Cognitive Theories Problem solving dream models can help us find creative solu to our problems and COI1CCI39I1S Chapter 7 A decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Associating one stimulus with another ie a song and a pleasant event Such that one stimulus comes to elicit a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus Pavlov s Pioneering Research measures salivation in dogs lAcquisition the period during which a response is being learned No learning is required for food to produce salivation Food is an unconditioned stimulus UCS Salivation is an unconditioned response UCR The tone and the food are paired each pairing is called a learning trial Conditioned stimulus CS A stimulus that through association with a UCS comes to elicit a Conditioned response CR similar to the original UCR During acquisition 1 CS UCS strong CR 2 With more food gt a tone becomes a CS more rapidly 2Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Extinction a process in which the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS causing the CR to weaken and eventually disappear Each occurrence of the CS without the UCS gt extinction trial Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period without new learning 3Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus generalization stimuli similar to the initial CS Discrimination when a CR occurs to a stimulus but not to others Higherorder conditioning a neutral stimulus gt CS after being paired with an already established CS higher order gt weaker CR Exposure therapies a patient is exposed to a CS that arouses and anxiety response ie fear without the presence of the UCS allowing extinction to occur Mental imagery reallife situations or both can be used to present the phobic stimulus 2 approaches systematic desensitization ooding 4 Attraction and Aversion Thomdike s Law of Effect learning through consequences A response followed by a satisfying consequence T vice versa Skinner s Analysis Skinner box 1 Reinforcement a response is strengthened by an outcomereinforce that follows it 2 Punishment in contrast to reinforcement Differences bt operant and classical conditioning 1 CC focuses on elicited behaviors OC focuses on emitted behaviors 2 In CC learning occurs through CSUCS parings in OC behavior changes when responses made by the organism 3 In CC the CS occurs before the CR Discriminative stimulus a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences CD ve reinforcement a response is strengthened by the presentation of a stimulus Primary reinforcers stimuli gt satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers ve reinforcement vice versa Operant extinction the weakening and eventual disappearance if a response because it is no longer reinforced CD ve punishment Aversive punishment a response is weakened by the presentation of a stimulus 9 ve punishment Response cost Shaping reinforcing successive approximations toward a final response Chaining develops a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response 1 Operant generalization an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus 2 Stimulus control 3 Operant discrimination an operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another Schedules of reinforcement 1 Continuous reinforcement Every response of a particular type is reinforced 2 Partial reinforcement Only a portion of the responses of a particular type are reinforced FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE reinforcement is given after a fixed of responses VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE variable FIXEDINTERVAL SCHEDULE the 1 response that occurs after a fixed time interval is reinforced VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE variable Bandura s SocialCognitive Theory people learn by observing the behavior of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviors to in uence events in their lives 4step process Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation Chapter 8 Memory as information processing 1 Encoding getting info into the system by translating it into a neural code that the brain processes 2 Storage retaining info over time 3 Retrieval processes that access stored info The three stage model of memory 1 Sensory memory brie y holds incoming sensory information subsystems sensory registers initial information processors 2 Working memory shortterm temporarily holds a limited amount of information Memory codes mental representations of some type of information or stimulus 1 Visual mental images 2 Phonological sounds 3 Semantic meaning 4 Motor patterns of movement Capacity 7 i 2 units Chunking combining individual items into larger units of meaning Components of working memory 1 Phonological loop brie y stores mental representations of sounds 2 Visual sketchpad stores visual and spatial info 3 Episodic buffer provides a temporary storage space where info from longterm memory and from the phonological andor visuospatial subsystems can be integrated 4 Central executive directs the overall action 3 Longterm memory is our vast library of more durable stored memories Serial position effect the ability to recall an item is in uenced by the item s position in a series gt2 components primary effect recency effect Encoding entering information Effortful processing intentionally conscious attention Automatic processing without intention minimal attention Levels of processing the more deeply we process information the better we will remember it Maintenance rehearsal involves simple rote repetition some students rely on it to learn their course material Elaborative rehearsal involves focusing on the meaning of information or expanding on it in some way Visual imagery Dual coding theory encoding information using both verbal and visual codes enhances memory bc the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall Method of loci places Schema is a mental framework our mental organizers A mnemonist memorist is a person who displays extraordinary memory skills Storage retaining information Associative network a massive network of associated ideas and concepts priming the activation of one concept by another neural network model each concept stored in memory is represented by a unique pattem of distributed and simultaneously activated nodes that process information in parallel Types of LongTerm Memory 1 Declarative memory involves factual knowledge and includes two subcategories 2 Episodic memory represents memory for words and concepts 5 Procedural memory is re ected in skills and actions Explicit memory involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval Implicit memory occurs when memory in uences our behavior without conscious awareness Retrieval activates information stored in longterm memory 1 Autobiographical memories recollections of personally experienced events that make up the stories of our lives 2 Encoding specificity principle states that memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding 3 Contextdependent memory 4 Statedependent memory 5 Mood congruent recall we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood happy gt ve events vice versa Forgetting Why do we forget l Encoding failure 2 Decay of the memory trace 3 Interference Proactive interference occurs when material learned in the past interferes with recall of newer material Retroactive interference occurs when newly acquired information interferes with the ability to recall information learned at an earlier time Tip of the tongue TOT state in which we cannot recall sth but feel that we are on the verge of remembering it 4 Motivated forgetting Forgetting to do things Prospective memory Amnesia 1 Retrograde amnesia memory lost for events that took place sometime in life before the onset of amnesia 2 Anterograde amnesia memory loss for events that occur after the initial onset of amnesia 3 Infantile childhoodamnesia memory loss for early experiences Dementia and Alzheimer s disease AD gta progressive brain disorder Misinformation effect the distortion of a memory by misleading postevent information