TOP SLOPE STABILITY
TOP SLOPE STABILITY CE 410
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Louie Hansen on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CE 410 at Portland State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/168214/ce-410-portland-state-university in Civil Engineering at Portland State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Formle smz mxmm Winter2 7 1 Motor Carriers Outline Modal profile 0 Major commodities E 0 Market structure L 0 Truck types and loadings E1 Tractors 0 TL Carriers g LTL Carriers 0 Weight Restrictions 0 Registration and Fuel Tax 1 0 Labor Issues E 0 Technology E 0 Public planning capacity NAFTA Border Issues 3 E mevsvm Winteaum 0 human 2 Freight Vehicle Capacity 100 car I in illlil al SemIhaller Mick 5000 TEU 3 Mon inn 2 mllllon banal ofuil 124 tons Pnixnlxxnsmn cmng oiaaarzuus JeanFaul Rodrigue Dem mEcanamics a Geagva mi may p a M quotW mam Heme W M 5w USA Used momma We mas pmapwgm 3 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Modal profile Motor carriers are dominant in the movement of most freight More specialized than railroading 2002 for Top 100 carriers 406 billion in revenue 386 billion in operating expense Pnnmm 5m mm Hum Winter 2mm 4 2 a t e n m s s m E m E a or E m I E or E e 395 I 6 E U Modal profile Of total truck VMT for business 1994 57 by vehicles less than 10000 lbs 15 by vehicles 1033000 lbs 28 by vehicles more than 33000 lbs By tonnage 67 moved less than 100 miles 4 moved more than 1000 miles Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Pr imrhrlb n n NM ILrn Wintev 2mm Major commodities Percentage of Revenue and Volume ChelwmlsAllied Pl udlius Farm Pmdllds 2 ta 1 o n v z e E 21 2 1 r m 5 a o 5 m ul E z o E z e 395 ul r4 E U Pmmmhsrm um r lum Wintev 2mm Market Structure 0 Private carriers WalMart Home Depot Kraft o For hire common carriers Lessthantruckload Truckload Household goods Bulk Tank Refrigerated Other specialized Pl Im 39r 51 n um i an Winter 2007 x 2 6 x39 o n w x a I E E w l u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x o 3 gt Lu 02 E U Market Structure 0 Trucking companies tend segregate their services into distinct categories or industries long distance v regionallocal private v forhire dry van v tanker general cargo v specialized cargoes including Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation In am Lwn STAN UNM rum Winter 2007 I amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation civ amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Market Share Percentage or intercrtv Tons Transported and Tomi Truck Revenues rmr Mm Mam um zu uuv Luml ForrHtiE Prlvnle interstateirrrmsrate DrrHire Lmerstere FurrHire Immstme FurrHire Exempt Imermy TuIiSTiauspmted 1 Toni Tmrk Revenues ist Paultwp snrr UM mm Wei m7 9 Permiimqe at ForHire hidiistiy and Carrier Revenues 39i niritimri Lus uni TAUL IUUJU Hmisehu d lands Hiiik Tank iaeir gsmled iiiiwrtnerniizeri I For Him rirhistrv E nirier Revvmi HHl i i ri rninmiir ii iiiHHuiiui Mimi rnnrn le ygmn We m m x 2 6 x39 o n w x a I E E w l u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x o 3 gt Lu 02 E 0 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Sample Carriers o Truckload firms Schneider National JB Hunt Swift Werner o Less than truckload firms YellowRoadway ABF UPS FedEx Ground sort of 0 Household goods firms United Van Lines North American Punnwn51 1 mm i Mn WW 2007 11 Market Structure 0 Class I annual gross revenue of 10 million or more 0 Class II annual gross revenue of 3 million to 10 million 0 Class III annual gross revenue under 3 million Class III carriers are not required to file annual reports with the DOT Iquot am LN Sm n mm rum Winter 2007 12 x 2 6 x39 c n w x a I E E w l u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x c 3 gt Lu 02 E 0 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Body types and loadings 0 Federal and state regulation on size and weight 0 Equipment can be specialized for different commodities Pl Im AND 51 n um i an Winter 2007 Size and Weight Restrictions 0 Gross Weight Gross weight of vehicle of 80000 lbs Many states allow heavier vehicles 0 Axle loads Single 20000 lbs Tandem 34000 lbs 0 Axle loads and spacing Bridge formula 0 ISTEA Freeze As of June 1 1991 all weights above In am Lwn STAN UNM hm Winter 2007 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Size and Weight Restrictions 0 Size 48 foot semitrailer minimum on national network Naomiimgmiim immimwii minimum iii me39 39o39o39k ul emumm Semliuxlci mm States can allow longer 53 trailer is common 28 semitrailer in combinations on NN No Overall mm timii mmm mimic immmmmii as m mm m min illiterwllsku 102 minimum vehicle width Some states restrict off NN width to 96 I DRTIAN D sum UNn39iiiLsm Winter 2007 Truck Combinations SingleCull 39l lucks ia o 1926 TmcleTmilcr Comhilmriom anmno Sum uNiv num Winter 2007 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Truck Combinations Pomwn STATE Lwn 39me39 STAA DullhIe l39m er Cmnbmmmu l amta quoto o 390 LCVK Double Trailer C mnbmmions Winter 2007 Truck Combinations PORN UN ND STATE 1 mm Winter 2007 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation 0 1 O o in c N I c 2 a LL I 01 r 39E o o E 01 LIJ E c o E c O L39 gt LIJ 05 E U Turnpike Doubles Figure III5 Highways Available for Turnpike Doubles POEVIQE ERET ATE Winter 2007 Rocky Mountain Doubles Figure ill6 39 m mu Pommm S39m39m Winter 2007 umvmmx Highways Availablc T 2 for RMDS amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Triples I igul39c Ill7 Highway Nemer Avallable for Trlple Trallsrs mquot Foggflm rpn who am 2 Truck Body Inventory 1992 Truck Inventory Complete inventory Light Duty 9137 Misrcllanmns 363 Whips um Mu lurSklp 5111 Van u AH va WW J quml amp Flatbed 2 55 Stalkquot laguml pal amp Lugglny u uglu Dry Vim 1 3m lwrlgmml Van n 35quot lemlurk VJH n can OH in Van n m LIquldCas Izmk u 3 Dryuulk ink um I m in k l rm Grnln Bod 0531 Cancun Mlxu39 n m Au only i l Pommggrr m who am 22 Truck Body Inventory 2 Truck Inventory 199 BreakrDown oi Miscellaneous Trucks MulurSlup Slap Van in mam P 39nrm amp Flamed Pole amp logglng LiquidGarnnk Dly Bulk Tank I LEWI amp Environmental Engineering Frei ht Transportation Commit Mum lgh H We El Is sum 5 U 15 20 25 m 35 Pomfbm qtn Winter 2mm 23 Single Unit Truck 0 Local delivery 0 Short hauls 2 1 t o n u z E E 9 2 it oi a a E o z m E z a E z e 39S 1 r4 Pomma Sm39t umvrimi Winter 2mm z 9 13 x o n m z E E 21 2 u I m E a o E m I Tu E o E z 2 39s U t E 0 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transponation Covered enclosed environment Most common equipment for tractor trailer mnmmsm r uiiwuLQm39 Wmev 2mm Refrigerated Van i Refrigerated cargo area quy mm mm Grain Body Agricultural products F r to r elevamr shipments Bulk Carrier Chemicals aggregates others Livestock Van 0 Live livestock 0 Equipment Lumber Steel Oversize products inn Civil a Envirnnmemal Engin Civil a Envimnmenlal Engineering A neinin Transpnnalinn Autocarrier 0 Automobiles 0 Capacity 810 autos Fuumxusuu WM 1am umwr Tank Body 0 Food products chemicals gasoline rampage w W mm H Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Wood Product Equipment Logs Wood Chips 170 IY Winter 2007 Container chassis o For transporting containers PORTIAND ERIE umvrmn Wii iter 2007 Containers E 2 6 x D D III E U E E I E Max Load I Length Height Width Tare Capacity AAR U E Ext int Ext int Ext int Lbs Cubic ft ibs I E g DomeStic 48 474 9 6 107 102 98 38 8500 3 400 67200 H E DomeStic 53 52 4 9 6 107 102 98 38 9350 3843 67200 5 E Maritime 40 395 5 8 6 93 78 8 0 92 V2 8377 2377 67200 E g Maritime jguw 8396 93 78 80 92 V2 5015 1166 52 900 m 2 A as P gil ilggm Winter 2on7 Average Payloads Average Payload and Loaded Weight of Common Truck Types Pounds 51m huntnuquot SAxk TrndolSem n a HM nimbk my type Payload 1mm hyhnl mm mm mini mm m thle M715 swim 317730 55350 Jsjuu mm Van yer bum 10555 a i 550 33035 551 m r in My mma mun 74m 55350 M on Dump Truck 517er mm mm 72 nu Tank Body mm 7137quot mi 0 744mm liidmnu my muiismnpir m Source FHWA TSW Study amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation FKERR R H Winter 2DEI7 civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Tractors Modern tractors Diesel motors Horsepower 300500 hp 0 Fuel efficiency 57 mpg depends on load Sleepers or daycabs mum Sm39t UMVI HNTV Winter 2am Truckload Carriers 0 Dominant form of dryvan and refrigerated service 0 Shipper schedules pickup o Pointtopoint service of full truck load 0 Shipper and consignee usually loadunload 0 Owner operator common 0 Relatively easy market entry Cost of equipment 0 Backhaul markets a concern anwnsnri LivarHSm Winter 2am x 2 6 x39 c a III I E I E E w I u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x c 3 gt Lu 02 E U TL Income and Expenses Source TTS Bluebook2001 PI IITEANI SI 1 um I IND WInter 2007 TL Expenses Carriers w Rev gt25M ALL OTHER COMMUNICATIOS OPERATNG amp UTILITIES EXPENSES o DEPRECIATION amp AMORTIZATION ALL SALARIES o FRINGES 34 ALL EQUIP RENTs amp PURCH TRPTN 0 ALL OPERATING ALL OPERATING L39CEONOSES ALL INSURANCE Source TTS Bluebook2001 PI IKILKVI gtD39I1 LINN R sn WInter 2007 20 z 9 1 t o n m z E z E 2 L m E a o E m z m E z o E z e 39S m It E U TL Performance TONerLE AVERAGE LOAD 7 ans AVERAGE HAUL 7 miles Source TTS Bluebook2001 PmmAVD 51m mm mm Wine 2mm LTL Operations 0 Hub and spoke concept Local pick up and delivery Freight consolidated for line haul Line haul movement to break bulk terminal Freight to delivery terminals Freight out for local delivery 0 Driver may unload truck Pi mm 51er NP mm Wine 2mm I 7 A c 2 6 x39 c n w x a I I E E w I u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x c 3 gt Lu 02 E 0 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation LTL Expenses Carriers w Rev gt25M ALL OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES 7 COMMUN CATIOS DEPRECIATION amp 3 UT39L39T39ES AMORTIZATION 1 ALL EQUIP RENTS amp PLRCH TRPTN ALL OPERATING TAXES amp LICENSES ALL INSURANCE ALL SALARIES WAGES amp FRINGES 63 ALL OPERATING SLPPLIES Source TTS Bluebook2001 PI IITEANI S 1 mm i win WW 2007 43 LTL Income and Expenses Source TTS Bluebook2001 U 39 gt5 V I I I s hsxg WW 2007 44 22 LTL Performance TON TONM LE AVERAGE LOAD tons AVERAGE HAUL miles Source TTS Bluebook200 l i v lt Pl gmm m Winter 2007 45 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Enforcement 0 Safety inspections Level 15 Out of service 0 Weight enforcement Static scales ITS technology green light slides Portable scales av is I L H hif m Winter 2007 45 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation ciii amp En ronmentai Engineering Freight Transportation ciiii amp Eniiironmentai Engineering Freight Transportation Oregon Truck Safety PnimAVD sun All Recordeg Tru Involyed Motor carr r Crashes and Rates W guuz 200 2004 05 Motor Carrier Crashes 1709 1925 1735 2032 Deaths 55 54 52 55 in uriea 522 503 540 574 Fatai Crashes 45 47 45 51 Tniet AtrFauit Crashe 1055 1172 1039 1130 MatarCarrierun rFauit Crashes 1020 1117 1007 1100 Motor Carrier Mechanicai Crashes 45 55 32 as not r rrier Miies Traveied iri Miiiioris 1555 1742 1001 090 ratai Crash Rate pei miiiion VMT 0027 0027 0 025 0 032 Aii Motor Carrier Ciash Rate per miiiioii VMT 1074 1105 0 992 1 075 Truck ArrFauit Crash Rate per miiiion 0w 0 540 0573 0577 0 502 Tripies Crashes v ear 14 17 15 17 Tripies Miieage 0y Vear miiiionsi 23 1 27 9 219 m haies Crash naie ear niiiiari VViT 0 505 0 500 0 502 NA crash Rate is caiculated as crashes divided by Miiiion miles traveieti hanue mm iom Winter 2Du7 Safety Inspections Pi LEVEL 1 N examinauoi39i appiicapie a ea orth Arne an Standard Inspection Ari inspecuon that inciudes otdriver s iioense medicai examiner s certi cate and waiver it icohoi and drugs driver s reoord ot utv status as required hours ot service s t beit vehicie inspection report brake svstem ooupiing devices exhaust svstem trame fuei s stem turn si nais brake iamps tai iamps head iamps iamps n proiecung ioads sate ioading teering me anism suspension tires van and opei39irtop traiier bodies wheeis and rims windshieid wipers emergencv exie on buses and HM requirements as appiicabie LEV WalkAround DfiVEfVEHICIE Ins Hon Ari e inciudes each ot the items speciiied under the orih American Standard inspecuon As a minimum Levei ii inspections must inciude examination of driver s iioense medicai examinees ceruiicate and waiver it appiicapie aioohoi and dru s dri er s re d ot dutv status as required hours ots vioe seat beit vehide inspect a e svstem coupiing devices exhaust svstem fuei svstem tum signais brake iamps taii iamps head iamps iamps on proiecung ioads sa e ioading steering mednai39iisrn suspension tires van and opei39irtop traiier bodies whee s and rims windshieid wipe s emergencv exits on requiremei39iB as app ica ie itis oonternpiated that the Waikr s indude miv those items which can be tting under the vehicie LEVEL 11 DriverOnly nspech39on a A roadside examination of the driver s iicense medicai oeruiicauon and waiver it appiicabie driver s reoord ot dut status as required hours otservioe seat beit vehide inspection report an requiremene as appiicabie EVEL v Special Inspections inspections under this heading tvpicaiiv inciude a onerume examination ofa particuiar itern These examinations are normaiiv made n support ota stud or to veriiv or refute a suspected trend on An inspecuon that inciudes each ot the n xarnination that ion report pr x LEVEL V Ve 39cIeOnly Insrech39 vehide inspection items speo ied u der the North American Standard Inspecuon Levei 12 without a driver present oonducted at anv iocation Kimk i i winter 2am frame Motor Carrier Inspection Activity by Ins ection Level 2003 2587 116715 1961 7413 755691 888076 8038 1019457 3390 1104791 3674 Te miual 131 Driver Only IV Special Study v Number enter Number Percent Number Percent P 301079 364139 9966 4446 19809 5894 6158 11451 5554 13801 4106 816641 1749 11418 0395 o 33611 111 Ci I amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation l39tw srrim Winter 2nu7 All US Weight Enforcement 2003 Fixed Scales l El 276662 WM 95076759 Semlpnnable Scales 522758 Pnnahle Scales 491196 lswmm Winter 2mm Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Poultrme 51m Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation 2 1 t o n u z E E 9 2 it i m 39 a a E m z u E z a E z e 39S u 2 E U Overweight Issues o TRB s Truck Weight Limits study estimated that nearly 160 to 670 million highway pavement costs could be saved if all overweight axles were eliminated TRB 1990 dense bulk co construction materials products TRB 2002 Table 1 Selected Niilmnill Truck eight iuliiliun Dill it mmodities such as agricultural mining or FY 1955 1939 n Ms M zouu Trllelsueinlmtl A A a i w x Em nngwm 7 331 mm L4 8 mm lllJUW mm m Tiuoio u iiy TM mm 39 QU MJOO 14mm on non 0 sss 1H oz l mi 9 quotill as mm as an h im39 quot n V N noquot n M ii 5mm nnnuanoi PnimAVD STU L WW m 5 LN I mil Truck Taxes and Fees Oregon Heavy Vehicle Use Tax Federal This is an annual tax paid to the Internal Revenue Service 100500 Registration Fees Motor carriers with vehicles over 26000 0 p unds register each vehicle at the heaviest loaded weight it will operate in Oregon during the year and pay an 150 600 annual fee 0 Truck License Plates and Plate Fees Oregonbased carriers display an ODOT truck license plate They pay 250 for 5 for two plates for Receipt and Tax Identifier for each truc PmmAVD 51m minim Winter 2am trucks plus 8 for a We k one plate for tractors and ight Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation 2 6 x39 c a III E I E E w l u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x c 3 gt Lu 02 E U Truck Taxes and Fees Oregon 0 Fuel Tax Federal 24 3 cents per gallon diesel o HighwayUse Taxes Carriers operating vehicles over 26000 pounds pay weig ht mile taxes An 80000 pound truck will pay 13 16 cents per mile Vehicle less than 26000 lbs pay a 24 cents per gallon diesel o RoadUse Fees Vehicles operating under single trip non divisible load permits at gross weights above 98000 pounds Fee is 57 cents per equivalent single axle load ESAL mile traveled Pl llT l39lquot5l 1 um i lN n Winter 2007 53 Insurance Oregon 0 Liability Insurance Minimum single limit of 750000 per accident 0 Cargo Insurance Minimum amount of 10000 Commodities exempt In 3illVlgtgtr39ll UMH rum sand gravel rock dirt debris Cinders wet ready mix concrete metallic ores and concentrates logs poles piling and cut trees cordwood wood chips lumber shingles veneer plywood particle board wallboard and siding unprocessed agricultural commodities fish scrap newspapers garbage and waste material for recycling compressed motor vehicle bodies and water Winter 2007 54 27 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Bonding Oregon HighwayUse Tax Bond Carriers operating vehicles with a combined weight over 26000 pounds may have to file a highway use tax bond substitute security or cash deposit to insure payment of fees taxes charges or penalties incurred while operating in Oregon 0 CollectonDelivery Bond A small number of carriers hauling for hire within Oregon provide an accessorial service for their shippers whereby they collect the amount of the invoice value of goods prior to actual delivery These carriers are required to file a 10000 security bond with the MCTD to insure their COD service i v m Pl W ql m Winter 2007 55 IRP and IFI39A 0 International Registration Plan IRP Cooperative arrangement where registration fees are apportioned based upon the distance traveled in each memberjurisdiction 0 International Fuel Tax Agreement IFTA Cooperative arrangement where fuel taxes are apportioned based upon the distance traveled in each memberjurisdiction m v gt 39 I lil r ELHW Winter 2007 56 28 Civil 8 Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Civil 8 Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation Fuel Tax Evasion Figure 2 States with Dyed Fuel Statues Source Federal Highway Administration a t 5 In CE EHTU Winter 2mm 57 Labor 0 Union Teamsters o FMCSA Hours of Service 11 Hours Driving maximum in 14 consecutive hours onduty breaks do not extend onduty time 10 Cumulative Hours OffDuty 6070 hours maximum in 78 Days 34Hour Restart needed I v r 39 7 H is Winter 2mm 5a 29 Civil amp Environmental Engineering Freight Transportation 2 6 x39 c n w x E I E E w l u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x c 3 gt Lu 02 E U Technology 0 GPS aided truck dispatching 0 Satellite communications 0 Centralized dispatching 0 Future electronic log books Pl lln39lquot5l 1 um l min Winter 2007 NAFTA Mexico 0 Previously Mexican carriers could only operate within 100 miles of border Moratorium imposed by Clinton administration Supreme Court heard case 42304 on whether EIS required before ban lifted NAFI39A implemented FMCSA operating authorities required No domestic service allowed 0 No similar restrictions on Canadian 1quot am LN Sm n mm hm Winter 2007 30 z 2 1 t o n u z E E 9 2 L I m a a E m z m E z a E z e 39S 1 r4 2 U Pomtwu Srm L va m ImportExport Process Shipperbuuks 1m Cmage Cumpzny m Mexican szer cn Pmksnp 1m Cusmms cn nun es cn delivers tn Fmqu Furwzrder Wm 2mm Mexnan Gamer m Custumer 0urceTm kmg mm M21050 CFI IncJ 39 MO CMI a Emnrnnmanlal Englnaanng Afralgm I39ransnnrlallnn CMI a Emnrnnmanlal Englnaanng Afralgm I39ransvnrlallnn rmnw n U m 39 DJ D D 0 C7 0 D D 1 35 terminus i E Q E i E i E a E 9 US Inspection Facility Emmy m mm 2 6 x39 o 1 w x a I E E w i u I n x 39 w w E n Lu T x w E x o 3 gt Lu 02 E U Current state of industry Reduced available capacity Growth in imports from China Increased freight volume Closure of a number of small companies 0 Fuel prices are now 70 ahead of 2003 levels Hours of Service rule making carriers less efficient Continued driver shortage and 100 driver turnover rates Result Freight cost increases in 2005 multiple sources suggest Truckload increase of 6 8 LTL Rail Intermodal increase of 4 5 i v lt Pl mm i m Winter 2007 67 34 debate hggjgcused on the f 6i heavy tru39cks P rticula I an ng uc siz MW 133 39 h rates and i lComparin g39IC rash Data from ODOT to Vehicle gt l q HCAS and ODOT Data from July 1999 to June 2001 39 39 4 Recdrded Triple Tailerashes a V o Traile Cra s hes scritis clear that Weight39alo s not show a clear picture so further analysis is required 7 quot Assumptions MUs be mag quotv tegori combinatibnsgk Final Results 1999 2001 Accident Rates for Conventional or SCV s andLCV s Accident lnvolveme nt Rate 39 involvement VMT quot1 00 mjllion Configuration 100 million Accidents VMT 50r6Axle 15031 3146 2093 Conventional and S CV s 7 8 meme 3428 363 1058 LCV s FQrms are art jnformatio39n nee co ncl u sion Summary Travel on undivided higher speed roads with many intersections and entrances significantly increase crash risks Higher traffic density increases crash risk Design attributes such as number of axles track width wheelbase number of units in a combination loaded weight and overall length influence vehicle stability and control
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