Pre-ColumbianSocietiesandSpanishConquest.enex HIST 1301
Popular in History of U.S. to 1865
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Date Created: 09/01/15
PreColumbian Societies and the Spanish Conquest Week 1 I Migration to the Americas In 1992 there was a worldwide debate on what the Discover of the Americas should be calledThey came to a comprise in which they renamed the Discoveries to The Encounter The 500th year anniversary of Columbus landing on the Americas was celebrated in the year 1992 0 Asia 0 Nomadic Hunters 0 These Nomadic Hunters used the Bering Straight to cross over to the Americas 40000 BC 25000 BC 0 Beringia 0 During the Ice Age the Bering Straight was not covered by water but was rather a land mass connecting Asia to N America 0 Environment Lacked Trees Savage Winds Subzero temperatures during winter During the summer they had vegetation 0 Animals Mammoths Bison Caribou Wolves o How did they live During the summer they hunted and gathered vegetation berries During the winter hunting was nearly impossible so in order to obtain food they froze and dried up meat during the summer For the exception of small dogs Nomadic Hunters did not bring domesticated animals to the Western Hemisphere 0 Changes in the Bering Straight Population increase Food shortage In 12000 BC the planet began to warm up as a result ice melted and water levels began to rise Over the period of 2000 years the Bering Straight disappears water covered it In 10000 BC people began to migrate Southward because there was an opening in the glaciers As a result of this the Nomadic Hunters on the Americas had no way of returning to Asia 0 Animals Encountered They encountered beavers the size of bears They encountered sloths that weighed up to several tons 0 9000 BC People who migrated southward reached the tip of S America 0 1492 By 1492 it is estimated that around 145 million people indians were living in the Americas By this year it is estimated that the natives had about 2000 languages throughout the continent They had a variety of cultures evolved from Nomadic to Sophisticated to Advance Advanced culture is possible when there is a surplus of food for the entire population there is a highly developed form of communication and there is trade among the people 0 Most Advanced Cultured found in the South The Advanced indians were a minority most native remained uncivilized ll Mayas o The Mayan Empire 0 They flourished250900 AD 0 Loca on Mayas were located in S Mexico and were spread out to what is now modern Honduras 0 Not Unified The Mayas were not a unified empire rather they were sovereign states 0 Religion Religion was very important to the Mayas Priests held positions of power they were also in charge of education Polytheistic the Mayans worshiped many godsdemons evil spirits 0 Food They had variety of foods some that included the following squash pozole turkey rabbit chocolate ect They had a surplus of food 0 Gender Division of Labor Men Farming Women Domestic duties 0 Aesthetics what they considered to be beautiful Crossed eyes Molding of heads often molded into a shape of a cone or flattened Filing of teeth often into the shape of a t or into a point Decoration of teeth 0 System of Writing They often wrote on wood stone folding tree books made of fig trees 0 Other Accomplishments Architecture Pyramids Calendars Mathematics good numbering system The Mayas numbering system consisted of 203 unlike our which consists of 1 Os 0 Political Organization in order from highest rank to lowest rank King position passed to first born son of the king Nobility Priesthood Ill Collapse of the Mayas 0 Reasons that led to the collapse of the Mayans o Warfare Extremely vicious mass killings and destruction of property As a result of the warfare many left the city states and fled o Exploitation of the Rainforest They had no more food sources 0 Overpopulation The are they lived in was the most densely populated region on Earth at the time o Drought IV Mexicans Aztecs o Loca on 0 They occupied Central America Southern Mexico and Guatemala Unlike the Mayan civilization the Aztecs were were a unified state 0 They migrated from the north 0 Tenochtitlan 1325 Aztec Capitol Lake Texcoco o Aztec Conquest They were the unrivaled power in Mexico at the time o Emperors ltzcoatl 1426 40 Moctezuma II 1502 o Conquest They raided many nearby lndians often taking prisoners and offering them as sacrifices This created hatred towards the Aztecs by the other tribes 0 Capitol and Empire 0 25 million people living in the Mechica Aztec Empire 0 Tenoch an About 350000 people inhabited this city alone One of the most populated cities on Earth if not the largest city on Earth 60000 stucco homes some were even two stories high most homes had gardens 0 Cleanliness Aztecs pumped spring waters into cities they also hired people to clean their cities The Aztecs bathed regularly they used deodorant and even had breath freshener During this time many European cities drank polluted water they also dumped garbage and waste out in the open and did not dispose of cadavers properly a Life and Society 0 Religion Polytheistic Cult of Huitzilopochtli 0 Human Sacrifices The Aztecs had a very demanding god who required human sacrifices without sacrifices the world would end The source of their human sacrifices prisoners of war conquered indians criminals slaves The sacrifices were promised a life of luxury and pleasure in the after life 0 Social Structure Hierarchical Highest nobility didn t have to be the son if the emperor Important groups priesthood emperors merchants Commoners Farmers warriors slaves Emperor Nobility Important groups Commoners 0 Women engaged in domestic duties V The Arrival of the lberians The first European colony in the Western Hemisphere was Santo Domingo settled in the 15003 0 Hernando Cortes 1519 O O 0 He was accompanied by 2000 Spaniards He landed in Veracruz When the Spanish arrived at the capitol they were greatly amazed by it They were even greeted by the natives themselves The city was built on top of a lake the natives had even built floating gardens 0 The Fall of Tenochtitlan O Monctezuma was immature and illprepared for the throne He never called for rescue when the spaniards took him captive in his own palace Totonacas They allied themselves with the Spanish Tlaxcalans They could have wiped out the Spanish but decided to ally themselves with them against the Aztecs European Advantage over the Natives Guns armor cannons horses Diseases only the Spanish were immune to not the natives small pox being the deadliest Bernal Diaz Spanish soldier that accompanied Cortez to the New World Wrote a book about how astonished the Spanish were when they entered the capitol Many Spaniards thought they were dreaming MesoAmerican War Traditions War was always announced this is why they greeted the Spanish not realizing their threat No treachery No honor in defeating a weak enemy if the enemy was weak and lacked weapons they would give them food and provided them with weapons Macan Main weapon used by the Aztecs It was a wooden club with Obsidian points The Spanish reported that this weapon could even behead a Spanish horse Obsidian Volcanic Rock Noche Triste First major battle for the capitol Spanish closed all exits of the city while the Mechicas held a religious ceremony The Spanish lost 400 soldiers 4000 allies and 400 horses during the battle Monctezuma was held captive he appeared in chains at the balcony of his palace he appealed for peace He was either killed by the Aztecs themselves or the Spanish The Spanish were defeated that night but the Aztecs did not pursue them 0 Final Blows to the Capital Disease The Spanish left a deadly killer in the Capitol Small Pox Spaniards seized Mexico City l39his was common in Europe but The natives did not do this because they did not believe in involving the innocent in war this was incredibly savage to them Tenochtitlan fell on August 21 1521 Cuachtemo was the emperor he was tortured and killed by the SpanishCortez used this time to regain his forces RECAP The area was densely populated which enabled diseases to spread very quickly plague lasted about 2 3months Cortez seized the capitol dishonorable and Cuachtemo attempted to escaped but was captured and executed 0 American Holocaust Death Rate in 1595 the population was 1 million in Central Mexico Causes for death were epidemics slaves worked to death genocide Wolf hounds covered in armor were fed with Indian flesh VI Spanish Expeditions in the North 0 What motivated the Europeans to Explore o Gokj 0 Land Segundones were the 23etc sons of a land lord in Spain who wanted to own land themselves 0 Trade 0 Religion The Spanish wanted to convert natives to Catholicism often by using violent methods 0 Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca First Europeans to enter what is now the modern SouthWest o 1528 They were shipwrecked only 4 survived Finally retuned to Northern Mexico in 1536 they told of their adventures there 0 Estevancio African Accompanied them on the expedition was the First African in the Southwest 0 Seven Cities of CI39bola Cities of Gold 0 Marcos de Niza 1539 o Priest that conducted expedition to find the Seven Cities of Gold in 1539 o This led to other Spaniards to follow up North in search of gold 0 Hernando de Soto o 1539 governor of Cuba left to explore Florida 0 He and his men were in search of wealth Seven Cities of Gold 0 They reached the Mississippi River o Hernando de Soto died during the expedition he became ill with fever and passed away The survivors of the expedition returned to Mexico in 1543 o Fransisco Vazquez de Coronado 0 Born to wealthy family in Spain 0 1540 Arrived in Mexico and became the governor of Nueva Galicia o WellKnown explorer About 5000 people went with him on his expedition He took Indians as well as women on his expedition o Cibora found in Arizona The natives in this region were called Zuni 0 Gran Quirvira The natives tricked the Spanish into leaving in search for this city of goldquot Later Fransisco found out he was tricked so he tortured and killed his lndian guide 0 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo o Alta California He died during the exploration First white man to reach California Report of the Survivors large amounts of natives vast amounts of resources in California 0 No Gold They did not find gold in California this discouraged further exploration of California 0 Settlement of New Mexico 0 1598 0 English threat 0 The English were a threat to the Spanish therefore the Spanish decided to colonize the Southwest before the English did it 0 Francis Drake in 1580 he circled the Earth Attacked Spanish ships reached Lima and even reached California 0 Juan de O ate 0 Was born to a very wealthy family 0 Led an expedition of 130 soldiers 0 Juan de O ate and his men received and encomienda They were able to extract lndian labor in return they protected Indians and civilized them 0 He was very cruel 1598 killed thousands of Indians Because of his cruelty he was removed from being governor 0 Indians of New Mexico 0 Sedentary Migrated Southward in the year 1000 Descended from Anasazi Included Hopi the Zuni and Acoma Settled alongside the Rio Grande o Nomadic They were Recent arrivals Apache Comache and Navajo Originated from the Great Plains Hunted and gathered for food They also conducted raids on Pueblo Indians and the Spanish when they acquired the horse they became an even greater threat to the Spanish 0 The Columbian Exchange 0 Biological and Culture Interaction 0 Disease Small Pox Flu Measles o Genocide o Crops and Animals Sugar banana cattle pigs sheep horses ect o Interracial Breeding Mating between both groups Spanish and natives were called Mestizos 0 Difference between the English and the Spanish 0 Political differences Spanish exerted greater control over the colonies English were more relaxed in how they governed 0 Economic interests Spanish were more concerned with mineral wealth English diversified their economy 0 Population Spanish mainly brought over single men mated with the natives English brought large number of families over to the New World isolated themselves from the natives