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by: Green Blanda Jr.


Green Blanda Jr.
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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Green Blanda Jr. on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PH 367U at Portland State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/168311/ph-367u-portland-state-university in Physics 2 at Portland State University.




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Date Created: 09/02/15
Origin of the Universe Theories A look at current theories for the origin of the universe and methods used to validate these theories Complexity and the Univelse 11 PH 367U Spring 2001 Ross Amans Dan Ragland Origin of the Universe Theories Table of Contents 10 39 J quot 4 20 Investigating a theory s validity 4 21 Theory de ned 4 22 Legitimacy of theories 5 R 9 9 23 Theory analysis techniques 30 Mainstream Theories 31 Mainstream Big Bang Theories 311 History 9 32 Shortcomings of the Standard Cosmology Big Bang 12 33 Mainstream Religious Theory 13 331 Creationism in a nutshell 13 332 The Basis ofC quot 39 14 333 Organization of Creationist Research 14 334 Sources for further reading 15 40 NonMainstream or 39 Theories 16 41 Example 17 The Big Bang Never Happened 16 411 Sample Web Site Content 16 412 Initial Review 16 413 What others sav 17 414 Analysis 19 42 Example 27 Jean 39 39J 19 421 Sample Web Site Content 19 422 Analysis 22 43 Example 37 Big Bang Philosophy 22 431 Sample Web Site Content 77 432 Analysis 23 44 Example Pseudoreligious origin of the universe 23 441 Sample Web Site Content 23 442 Analysis 25 50 Key Learning 25 60 Conclusions 31 Appendix A Further Reading 34 Appendix B More Websites 39 Page 2 Origin of the Universe Theories Preface The purpose of this report is to establish an initial starting point dra of a tutorial which students can use as they begin to study origin of the universe theories This report is written in a somewhat informal manner such that students may more easily digest it While sources are still sighted formalities such as footnotesendnotes have been intentionally omitted In addition we have taken a more conversational approach in our writing Page 3 10 20 Origin of the Universe Theories Introduction Throughout history mankind has struggled to explain how the universe came into existence Over time many ideas and conjectures have been conceived in an attempt to explain just how the universe was formed Throughout the ages many of these ideas have been disproved yet many are continuing to undergo scienti c investigation These ideas under investigation are called theories This report will examine theories ranging from the big bang to creation With the existence of countless varying origin of the universe theories it is important that one approaches each theory skeptically There are many techniques that should be used when evaluating these theories This report will explore the methods used in determining the validity of these theories Investigating a theory s validity Before we even look at origin theories we must first understand how to evaluate theories in general Theories should not be accepted as fact Instead theories should be closely examined and scrutinized for accuracy The goal of this section is to discuss what theories are and what techniques are available to distinguish the good from the bad and fact from ction 21 Theory de ned Let us start by looking at the dictionaries definition of a theory Why is this important There are many misnomers about what a theory is For example consider Einstein s theory of relativity and the theory of evolution Many assume that both of these theories could be equally proven as facts The truth however is that many scientists would say that Einstein s theory has a much better chance of being proven factual than the theory of evolution The point is that neither has been llly proven even though many people believe they are Page 4 Origin of the Universe Theories facts The dictionary de nition of theory shown below will be the basis for our use of the term Theo 1ry A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena The branch of a science or art consisting of its explanatory statements accepted principles and methods of analysis as opposed to practice a ne musician who had never studied theo 3 A set of theorems that constitute a systematic view of a branch of mathematics 4 Abstract reasoning speculation a decision based on experience rather than theory 5 A belief or principle that guides action or assists comprehension or judgment staked out the house on the theory that criminals usually return to the scene of the crime 6 An assumption based on limited information or knowledge a conjecture P Source The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Fourth Edition 2000 httpwwwbartlebycom6120T0152000 html 22 Legitimacy of theories There are many good recourses designed to help readers separate good and accurate information from inaccurate or misinformation The two tables below have been adjusted to t with the analysis of theories Methods for evaluating legitimacy of theories i Accuracy How reliable and free from error is the information 0 Has the presentation been factchecked accuracychecked equations been checked 0 Has the theory been peer reviewed ii Authority What are the author s quali cations for writing on the subject How reputable is the publisher If author s name listed hisher quali cations frequently absent Publisher responsibility often not indicated How knowledgeable is the individual or group on the subject matter of the theory Is the theory sponsored or cosponsored by an individual or group that has authority in the eld iii Objectivity Is the information presented with a minimum of bias To what extent is the information trying to sway the opinion of the audience 0 Does the theorist explain what would disprove his theory Page 5 Origin of the Universe Theories iv Currency Is the content of the work up todate Is the original publication date clearly indicated o Is the latest revision date clearly indicated v Coverage 0 What topics are included in the work 0 To what depth are topics explored Is the relationship to related theories explained vi Organization and structure 0 Does the text follow basic rules of grammar spelling and literary composition o Is there a clear and obvious organization to the presentation vii Presentation Is the information presented completely as an outline or just the headings slides from a esen a on o Is it presented in the form of a news item a textbook technical paper thesis or an article for a magazine Are technical terms explained or expanded in a glossary Are equations and other math explained Is it written assuming an extensive background in the subject or so that any college level h t student should be able to understand it or at least work their way throug 1 o Is the presentation comparable with related sources o Is the format appropriate viii Professionalism Is an of cial writing standard followed 0 Are sources cited in the form of footnotes or bibliography Are data sources documented Are sources of equations cited 0 Are further study resources listed ix Completeness Does he explain the origin and history of his theory Does he explain his plans to continue research to collect data to support or disprove his theory 0 Are signi cant steps in the development or explanation of his theory missing x C on sensus Are there supporters of the theory How many How authoritative are they Are there detractors of the theory How many How authoritative are they 0 Are citations by others of the theory listed xi Consistency Has the theorist written other papers on the subject Has the theorist written on other subjects 0 What are his writings on other subjects like xii Other 0 How reliable are the links are there blind links or references to sites that have moved o Is contact information for the author or producer included in the docume t Source Alexander amp Marsha Ann Tate Wolfgrarn Memorial Library Widener University httpwvwv Widener in M 39 11quot i mm This a modi ed version based on the following Web Resource Evaluation Techniques by Jan Page 6


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