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# PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CH 440

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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyshawn Gaylord on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 440 at Portland State University taught by Reuben Simoyi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/168314/ch-440-portland-state-university in Chemistry at Portland State University.

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Date Created: 09/02/15

Topics for Final Exam Topics for Final Exam Monday December 5 2011 SB1 107 Notes The exam will involve at least the following definitions derivations and calculations List is not really exhaustive Some questions from Exams 1 and 2 Assignments 1 and 2 and the quiz may also pop up in thefinal exam This is a timedexam and so students should try to do the easy questionsfirst get them out of the waybefore attempting the tougher questions l Iquot S P Uquot 9 9 5quot H H H H H Newton Raphson Technique Non convergingiterations Numerical Intergration Simpson Method Runge Kutta Euler methods Partial derivatives Cubic form of the VDW s equation First and second partial derivatives of the VDW s equation Cross derivatives Total derivatives Estimating AP from its total derivative Ideal gas behavior Three basic postulates of the kinetic theory of gases Pressure units N on Pressure calculations Gas Laws Boyle39s law isotherms Charles and Avogadro s laws Compressibility factor 2 Two parameter equations of state WVWs RK and PR equations Berthelot Dieterici Virial equation of state Comparison of the PR and RK equations Critical point critical isotherm Condensation Maxwell construction Evaluating critical constants in the VDW s equation inflexion point Evaluating PchRTc Law of corresponding states Evaluating a b in critical constants for the VDW39s the RK is too complex forexams Deriving VDW equation in terms of reduced variables equation 44 in lecturenotes Using the law of corresponding states Deriving Z in terms of reduced variables equation 47 in lecture notes Virial equations of state Boyle temperature definition of Dalton s law of partial pressures Evaluating partial pressures Evaluating mole fractions Statement of the first law definition Acquisitive form of the first law Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Systems definition of Definition of work energy Deriving expansion work Deriving isothermal reversible expansion work State Functions Evaluation of work Adiabatic expansions Proof that AU is a state function while q and w are not Work done in an adiabatic expansion m H Derivation of T2T1 V1V21c Enthalpy Heat Capacity Derivation of P1V1y P2V2y equation 1923 in text Enthalpies of transition Thermochemistry Enthalpies of formation Hess Law and evaluation of reaction enthalpies Kirchoff s law Internal energy internal pressure Expansion coefficient isothermal compressibility their values for ideal gas Joule Thompson experiment JT coefficient Experimental measurement of isothermal JT coefficient senthaps inversion temperature Boltzman factor The canonical ensemble Probability distribution of states and Boltzman Statistics The almighty partition function Evaluation of average ensemble energy for a monatomic gas Ensemble energies for a rigid rotor harmonic oscillator Derivation of heat capacity of ensemble at constant volume Derivation of Dulong and Petite s law Derivation of ideal gas equation from the partition function Partition function of distinguishable and indistinguishable units Fermions and Bosons molecular partition function degeneracy Kinetic theory of gases postulates Derivation of P 13Nmu2V Root mean square speed mean speed relative speed calculations of Derivation of ideal gas equation from kinetics theory extension of item 17 Maxwell distribution of molecular speeds Collision frequency mean free path calculations of Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics P1 V1 T1to P2 V2 T1 prove that AS is independent of path but q w are Example 201 page 823 Example 202 Clausius inequality U1 9 l 102 103 104 S kBan AS calculations expansion into a vacuum Engine efficiency Statement of the third law Phase transitions Debye extrapolation Trouton s rule The Carnot Cycle entropy change in a circular path Gibbs and Helmholtz energies work function non PV work Derivation that Gibbs energy is non PV work Spontaneity and Gibbs energy The Fundamental Equation Euler s reciprocity Maxwell relations Entropy calculationsevaluations from Maxwell relations The thermodynamic equation of state involving U and H eqns 49b and 58 Example 22 4 Problem 19 27 Example 22 8 105 106 107 108 109 110 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 122 The Standard State The Gibbs Helmholtz equation Chemical potential d6 VdP SdT Hound of the Baskervilles Fugachy Evaluationcalculation of fugacity Phase diagrams triple point critical points sublimation curves etc The Phase rule J W Gibbs The Clayperon Equation The Clausius Clayperon Equation Liquid liquid solutions Partial molarquantities The Gibbs Duhem Equation Raoult s Law Vapor composition Lever rule Fractional distillation Non ideal solutions positive and negative deviations from Raoult s Law 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 Example 24 6 page 980 Henry s law 2 component solutions Azeotropes AGmixfor ideal solutions ideal gases proff that this is a spontaneous process Activity and activity coefficients Activity and standard states Solid liquid solutions Molality Colligative properties Freezing point depression and boiling point elevation Osmotic pressure Non ideal electrolyte solutions

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