Race, Ethnicity, Capitalism, Globalization
Race, Ethnicity, Capitalism, Globalization GEOG 101 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Notetaker on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 - 002 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Matthew Russell Cook in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/02/15
Race Ethnicity Capitalism Globalization Race 0 Biologically meaningless all humans are Homo sapiens sapiens O Traits associated with race for example skin color hair texture facial shape may make us look different but biologically we all share remarkably similar DNA and other biological characteristics 0 Skin color variations are a biological adaptation to environmental factors mainly proximity to the equator and the sun Modern Understandings of Race 0 However we know that in the world today race is not treated simply as a biologically meaningless characteristic 0 Race as a socially constructed concept 0 A social construction is an idea that a social group constructs as reality but social constructions have real effects on people s lives 0 In other words Race may not matter in a scientific sense but over the course of history humans have made race a powerful social category Racism 0 Racism involves power 0 Power of one racial group to dominate another 0 Most frequently based on the belief that one racial group is superior to another counter to the scientific understanding of race 0 Racism comes in two major forms 0 Personal 0 Institutional sometimes called systemic or systematic Ethnicity Based on cultural differences Ethnic groups are usually self defined Example Knoxville baby 0 Child is born here but gives it up for adoption to a Russian family 0 Raised as a Russian 0 So you would say that person is Russian even though they were born in America Race amp Ethnicity in the US 0 Race and ethnicity can sometimes be difficult to distinguish just ask the US Census Bureau 0 According to the CIA World Factbook the US is made up of 0 White 7996 0 Black 1285 0 Asian 443 O Amerindian and Alaska Native 097 0 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 018 Political Systems 0 Not all countries have the same political system Q We will encounter several kinds 0 Two ways to categorize political systems 0 Power structure how is power structured from top to bottom 0 Power source who holds power and how is it used Political Systems Power Structure 0 Confederation loosely aligned group of political units that work for specific ac ons 0 Empire extensive group of diverse holdings all controlled from one place British empire 0 Federation what we are familiar with here in the US give and take from top and bottom 0 Unitary State largely federal government controls thingsmost common kind in the world Political Systems Power Source 0 Authoritarian 0 Democracy power is more shared at least in theory the people vote for elected officials Q Monarchy figure head of king or queen royal family 0 Oligarchy form of power sharing similar to a monarchy where the wealthy rule or even the military rule by committee 0 Others anarchy theocracy etc Globalization 0 Often confused with other economic terms 0 Globalization can be defined as the increasingly connected nature of the world 0 Globalization has four major components 0 Labor needs to be cheap 0 Currency value of money relative to other countries 0 Banking transfer of money from country to country 0 Capital the means of production and money used to buy it 0 Globalization is also fundamentally about the flow of people goods services and money around the world 0 Globalization has sped up with the advancement of technology 0 Examples O TimeSpace Compression places that once seemed further away now seem closer because of technology the physical space is the same but the time it takes to get there keeps getting shorter O JustlnTime technology developed by Japanese automakers dividing labor into different facilities one place makes all the engines one makes the transmission etc Political Economy 0 Many approaches to PE 0 Claimed intellectually by Political Science Economics and Sociology 0 Most relevant to us is the Sociological approach 0 Political economy studies the actions of three social institutions 0 Markets States and Classes 0 These interact with many other social actors and institutions all of which may be subjected to a political economy analysis 0 Means of Productions The facilities and resources for production of goods and servnces 0 Two main frameworks or branches of Political Economy theory studies today 0 Capitalist O CommunistSocialist O Other branches some historic anarchist mercantilist lslamic fascist feudalist etc 0 Capitalism is currently the dominant global economic system Capitalism 101 Q Began as Feudalism ended 0 No complete consensus over definition but 0 Private ownership of means of production 0 Goods and services madesold for profit 0 Importance of markets especially for setting prices 0 Wage labor as opposed to slavery serfdom Communism 0 While once considered a major threat to freedom and the Western World as it was practiced by the USSR is ultimately about establishing a society based on the common ownership of the means of production 0 Several variants 0 All hold in common several key beliefs 0 Conflict between two major classes under Capitalism leads to a number of contradictions and conflicts that are ultimately not sustainable O This conflict will lead to a better society based on the common ownership of the means of productions Q How this allegedly better society will come about has been subject to debated thus the many variations Neoliberalism Q It has not the same as the political term liberal a term often associated with Democrats Q It is named for the specific type of capitalism under which the majority of the world operates Q Neoliberalism is based on classical theories of economics namely the belief that the free market and private enterprise should dominate economics and politics because they are somehow the most efficient Q Leads to a number of policies 0 Low taxes 0 Small government 0 Privatization of public services 0 Deregulation of industry and finance
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