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## Week one notes

1 review
by: Jordan Notetaker

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# Week one notes STAT 110 005

Jordan Notetaker
USC
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
Sims

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This is the first week of notes from class and lecture
COURSE
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
PROF.
Sims
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## 2

1 review
"If Jordan isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!"
Daniela Dare

## Popular in Statistics

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Notetaker on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 110 005 at University of South Carolina taught by Sims in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Statistical Reasoning in Statistics at University of South Carolina.

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## Reviews for Week one notes

If Jordan isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!

-Daniela Dare

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Date Created: 09/02/15
August 25 2015 Statistics Statistics is the science of collecting data Where do data come from Individuals the objects described by a set of data The objects can be people animals or things Variable any characteristic of an individual Variables can take different values for different individuals Example A student database at a university includes data about every currently enrolled student For each individual the data contain the values of variables such as 0 Date of birth 0 Choice of major o GPA Data sources Observation study observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to in uence the response Example A child psychologist might observe and record the level of aggressive behavior but not take action to change the behavior Experiments deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses Definitions Population The entire group of individuals about which we want information Sample A part of the population from which we actually collect information Census A sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample Chapter 2 Collecting Data We want to select a sample from the population and we want the objects in the sample to be representative of the population Samples Good and Bad Biased sampling design Systematically favors certain outcomes 0 Sampling designs that are often biased Convenience sampling Selects whichever individuals are easiest reach Voluntary response sampling Chooses itself by responding to a general appeal Simple random samples of size n consists of n individuals from the population chose in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be the sample actually selected August 27 2015 Random gill8 I A long string of digits 0 12 3 4 5 6 7 89 With these two properties 1 Each entry is equally likely to be any of the digits 0 through 9 2 The entries are independent of each other Choosing a Simple Random Sample SRS Step one Label 5 Assign a numerical label to every individual in the population All labels must have the same number of digits Step Two Table Use the Random number table to select labels at random Labeling Labels can be assigns in any manner for example alphabetical order Random Digits Table The digits appear in groups of5 to make the table easier to read The groups and rows have no meaning Digits can be read across a row down a column or in any other order important tip skip any repeats when selecting simple random sample Example Suppose there are 800 courses at an institution alphabetized by department and number 001800 and you decide to randomly select 50 of them to determine what proportion of all the courses have a statistics prerequisite Pick a line and column in Table A at random Suppose we get line 111 column 3 111 81486 69487 60513 09297 00412 7 1238 27649 39950 112 59636 88804 04634 71197 19352 73089 84898 45785 113 62568 70206 40325 03699 71080 22553 11486 11776 The randomly selected would be course labeled 605 120 929does not count because it exceeds the 800 courses 700 412 etc What Do Samples Tell Us Does the number describe a sample or a population Parameter a number that describes the population It s a xed number but we usually don t know its value Statistic a number that describes a sample Its value is computed from sample information but it can change from sample to sample Proportions 39 We want to estimate the proportion of individuals in a population with a certain characteristic The population proportion p is an unknown parameter 39 We wish to estimate p based 011 a sample Take a SRS of size 11 from a population with p success p is the sample proportion where pA count of successes in the sample n

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