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Week 1 of Notes

by: Michaela Banks

Week 1 of Notes PHIL 250E

Michaela Banks
World Religions
Dr. Van Dore

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World Religions
Dr. Van Dore
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Banks on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 250E at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Van Dore in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see World Religions in PHIL-Philosophy at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 09/02/15
World Religions 9AM MWF Professor Van Dore Why study religion 0 to understand 0 to be respectful and mindful to engage in a multicultural world What is religion 0 A worship practice belief system an attitude towards the universe or a system of conduct and ethics 0 It can be intellectual or emotional o It can be common worship group or an individual experience 0 It can be what you D0 or what you BELIEVE What is the origin of religion as explained in the past 0 Natural phenomena seas storms mountains Ghostheroic ancestors o Souls Tylor thought people believed this from the beginning wrong because Plato invented the soul 0 Magic forcing nature to do something for us mythology as a means of social solidarity groups tribes Happiness in an oppressive world Marx 0 Trying to defend oneself from the terrors of life psychological term Freud Archetypes present in the quotcollective unconsciousquot 0 Real life mothers and fathers create a mythical mother and father tricksters like bunnies portrayed in mythology The trickster god has not power but wants it The textbook savs religion is a human activity that satis es one s inherent Spiritual needs amp desires BUT Prof Van Dore says religion is a way of life Grouping Past Religions 1 exam groupings 1 amp 2 0 Group 1 Prehistoric a goddess Mediterranean Egyptian Mesopotamia Greek amp Roman MesoAmerican Mayan Aztec Group 2 Preliterate people African Native American 2 Exam groupings 3 amp 4 0 Group 3 Hinduism Sikhism Hinduism is a parent to Sikhism but a child of GreccoRoman polytheistic religions Group 4 Far East Taoism Confucianism Shinto 3 Exam groupings 5 amp 6 0 Group 5 Zoroastrianism Judaism Christianity Islam Bahd l is a monotheistic religion from Person 19th century amp is based in Islam A religious gures are prophets Group 6 Mormons Jehovah s Witnesses Scientology Moonies 70 s Hippy group PhHosophy The nature of the gods God or the divine The nature of humanity and its relationship to the gods god or divine anthropology Various subgroups and how they differ Signi cant people Sacred documents Essential problems and solutions ETHICS The worship and religious practices Philosophy of Religion Pt 1 Category Theology Nature of the gods God or Divine Theology literally means talking about gods God or Divine There are many gods and they compete in different realms 0 LE Hinduism and Buddhism Henotheism There is one primary god and many lesser gods 0 Heno means one o It is a transitional phase from POLY to MONO 0 Hebrew Job shows this type of religion There is only one god Whether or not there is a god cannot be known There is no god The earliest gods have human characteristics The gods emerge from primordial chaos and then birth additional gods The universe precedes the gods and the gods are human appearing and acting Eastern gods and religions tend to minimize the personal characteristics of the godgodsdivine They say godgodsdivine are NOT like humans and they cannot love or be angered GodgodsDivine is in everything and is everywhere Western gods have a more personal relationship with the gods They are in great debt to Greek philosophy for their understanding of GodgodsDivine god is everywhere god is allknowing God exists outside the realm of human reality god is present and actively involved in the reality of human existence Attributes of God Part 1 all powerful What can t god do never changing If god can t change what about his moods Attributes of God Part 2 Omniscience allknowing If god knows do we have control Does god knowing everything impact out salvation allcontrolling If god controls everything why does he allow evil Arguments About Existence Part 1 Anselm of Cantebury said quotGod is that which nothing greater can be conceivedquot 0 Known as the 0 John Duns Scotus said quotJust cause you can think it does NOT make it truequot Arguments About Existence Part 2 The complexity and variety of nature implies a creator right 0 Known as the quot 0 Also called intelligent design watchmaker theory 0 But not considered logical because it does not account for other arguments just assumes Argument About Existence Part 3 People have always had mystical experience so there must be a Godgodsdivine o quotMystical Experience Argument Outside the realm of logical arguments Argument About Existence Part 4 Thomas Aquinas said since all things are caused by other things so God caused the chain 0 Known as the quot Religious Responses to the Arguments God is always greater than what we can imagine and we cannot comprehend a god Human logic is illegitimater applied to the divinegodsGod because we cannot even comprehend their magnitude Extra Terms Theophany an appearance of a godgodsdivine Animism nonhuman things like plants and rocks have souls and can interact with the world Philosophy of Religion Pt 2 Anthropology The nature of humanity and the relationship to the divinegodsgod Life After Death Evidence of life after death goes very far back and Plato was the rst to say that there are two parts to the human the soul and the perishable body The Soul Does the soul travel from life to life or does it go from body to body ls reincarnation a thing Does the soul wait Is the soul the mind Is the mind the soul Where is it in us Philosophy of Religion Pt 3 Sects Different groups amp the Differences What divides religion 0 Interpretation of the message 0 Sometimes the issues are signi cant and insigni cant 0 Usually the issues are just elements of the religion Leaderships o Leaders can cause major a split within a religion 0 Possibly a leadership interpretation or political issue and sometimes leaders are deemed quotunworthyquot Ethnic groups 0 Divisions on ethnicity or nationality Philosophy of Religion Pt 4 Religious Leaders Founders prophets reformers Founders Not every religion has a founder Some it is impossible to identify a time or place of origin 0 o A prophet is a very speci c type of religious person 0 A prophet is someone who speaks for god but does not predict the future Reformers o Reformers have an impact on the direction of the religion 0 Usually they try to go back to a pure state and rid the religion of any unnecessary additions Interpreters 0 Signi cant gures who seek to explain the religion to believers and non believers in their contemporary world 0 LE Joel Olsteen Philosophy of Religion Pt 5 Sacred Texts Scriptures Laws and Inspirational Scriptures are to die for and are decided through a process called canonization o means rulermeasurement o All religions canonize their documents and they can change at times 0 Law 0 Sacred texts which direct the lives of its adherent and may proscribe punishment 0 May or may not be with the canonization of the Scripture o Insp a onal o Texts inspired by religion and its thinking and mystical directly connected to the divine experience Philosophy of Religion Pt 6 Ethics the main problem and its solution 0 Evil is hard to explain in a monotheistic religion where the god is allknowing and allpowerful o Theodicy how to explain a god who allows the existence of evil o quotFor the greater goodquot explanation suffering will bring good 0 quotFree willquot explanation god has no responsibility it is human choice therefore human fault Polytheistic explanations are that there are good and bad gods Nontheistic or nonpersonal gods religions say that god cannot take actions to or prevent evil so humans are responsible


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