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Chapters 1 & 2

by: Michaela Banks

Chapters 1 & 2 STAT 130M

Michaela Banks
Elementary Statistics
Dr. Corinne Wilson

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Elementary Statistics
Dr. Corinne Wilson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Banks on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 130M at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Corinne Wilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Elementary Statistics in Statistics at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 09/02/15
Statistics Chapter 12 The is to learn about a large group by examining data from some of its members amp there are two types of data collection TYPES OF DATE COLLECTIONS Population vs Sample Everyone in the study A small portion of the population A is a numerical A is a numerical value of a description of a Variables amp Types of Data uanitatve Q Categorical N 7 Continuous I 2 Discrete A finite In nite nu ber Na es and number 39e of possibilities I b I people In a 39 a e 5 le Zip ie WGight Of 3 codes and hair family person color Levels of Measurement Names labe5 MALE zip code hair color it Has an order but no differnece IE grades Difference between two values IE test scores temperature 5 There is a natural zero IE height age Sampling Methods 0 Be sure to check where the data is coming from Sources are importation Bad samples can be used to look like good reliable samples 0 The best type of a sample is a random sample or a selection where each member has an equal chance of being selected 0 Systematic is a sampling method where every kth is chosen ie every 3rd person every 10th 0 Convenience samples are not good This technique takes data from whateverwhoever is available Conclusions 0 Make statements that are clear to those without an understanding of statistics and its complex terminology 0 Avoid making statements not justi ed by statistical analysis Statistical signi cance 0 Always consider chance o If it can occur by chance it is not statistically signi cant and if it cannot occur by chance then it is statistically signi cant Practical Implications 0 State practical implications of the results 0 Common sense is extremely important always ask quotIs it practicalquot Misuse of statistics 0 Evil intentions like companies 0 Honest mistakes by ignorant people who use statistics Importance of a good sample o It must be a random selection 0 The data may be useless if the sampling isn t done right Characteristics of the Data Center the average value that shows the middle Variation measurement of the amount that the data vary Distribution natureshape of the data Outliers Data that lies far away from most of the data Frequency distribution a table to organize and summarize the data Symbols in statistics f frequency n sample size 2 the sum rf relative frequency cf cumulative frequency Lower class limit the smallest number in the class Upper class limit the highest number in the class Class boundaries the number between the upper class of 1 class and the lower class of the next class amp it is always one more decimal place that the data Class midpoints values in the middle of the classes by adding lower amp upper class limits and then dividing by two Class width how big one class is all possible numbers Reasons to Construct a Frequencv Distribution Summarize large data Analyze nature of the data o It creates a basis for graphs


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