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ENVlO CH 10 Genetics Gene is a basic physical and functional unit of heredity Genes which are made up of DNA act as instructions to make molecules called proteins In humans genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more then 2 million bases A is bounded with T or vise vase C is bounded with D or vise vase Heredity Gregor Mendel grew and crossedinter bred tens of thousands of plants primarily pea plants to come up with his hypo about inheritance of traits Pparental generation F1 first resulting F2 offspring of F1 generation Genesinherited trait vs Allelesdifferent form of gene Dominantreadily expressed vs recessivehidden only expressed with double recessive alleles A dominant allele produces a dominant phenotype in individuals who have one copy of the allele which can come from just one parent For a recessive allele to produce a recessive phenotype the individual must have two copies one from each parent An individual with one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene will have the dominant phenotype They are generally considered carriers of the recessive allele the recessive allele is there but the recessive phenotype is not Homozygoussame form of the gene alleles vs heterozygousdifferent forms of the genemixed alleles Polygenic trait multiple gt1genes control a single trait Pleiotropic trait one gene controls multiple genes Mendellian1 gene controls a single trait Genotypethe genetic coding vs phenotypewhich genes are actually expressed Genotype Genotype is the genetic info responsible for a physical trait Phenotype is the organism and its physical traits Phenotype is determined by genotype Dimples phenotype Inherited blue eye P brown eye allele geno Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment Ei imw oi l t L39C i ht bw39c o il9JO 31513 l i FIE Ef li 39t E E iro E li itmo G E P gt genetics environment including nutrition Phenotype Which means expressed genes depend on the factors of genetics and environment Punned square quantitative genetics a way of predicting genotypic and phenotypic ratio Punned square 3 ways Dadmam A A A AA AA A AA AA Mom is homozygous dominant Dad is homozygous dominant So the child is same as hisher parents which is homozygous dominant Dadmam a a a aa aa a aa aa Mom is homozygous recessive Dad is homozygous recessive So the child is same as hisher parents which is homozygous recessive DadMam m m M Mmheterozygous mmhomozygous recessive m mm mm homozygous homozygous recessive recessive DadMam M m M MM homozygous Mmheterozygous dominant m Mmheterozygous mm homozygous recessive Capital letter dominate tree Small letter recessive Same genes but different Allelesrepresented by small cap or big If we have cap Y and small Y Genetic Probability Y v s SY25 Sy25 s sY25 Sy25 Or 1212121 ratio Two different alignment rations is still conserved Homozygous panel square Homozygous recessivesmal r r r Always mixed R Rr Rr Panel square showing a cross of a homozygous round seeded pea with a homozygous wrinkled seeded pea Yielding all R RF Rr round dominant seeded offspring Heterozygous panel square Tt T t T TT25 Tt t Tt tt Incomplete Dominance means to produce a heterozygous phenotype that is intermediate between those of the parents Ex from white and red flower incomplete dominance will be Pink color flower Environmental Effect temperature is a cue to change their cover or cue to activate gene Codominance both genes expressed equally Ex A house has white hair and black hair equally which looks like gray in our eyes Blood Antigens on blood cells Genotype A la la OR lai B lb lb or lbi AB la lb 0 none none The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as self an gens if foreign antigens are discovered in your body antibodiesor immunoglobulins will be made by B cells of the immune system Which means if you get different blood type then your immune system activates to attack the foreign antigens Antigens antibodies agglutination phenotype antibodie A AntiB B AntiA AB none 0 AntiA and AntiB Type AB universal recipient Type O universal donor The Rh Antigen Genotype phenotype Antigens on b cell Why is there always a 50 50 change that a kid could be a boy or girl Female X Y XX is 225 50 which means boy is born in 50 X XX 25 XY 25 XY is 225 50 which means girl born in 50 x xx 25 xv 25 CH1114 DNA genetic material 1258 PM httpearngeneticsutahedu Chromatin is coiled DNA and a certain protein DNA replication Summery of DNA Replication Slice up the middle of DNA redder DNA polymerase makesynthesize replication of DNA continuously A SUMMARY OF DNA REPLICATION Singlestrand binding 9 The leading strand is proteins stabilize the synthesized continuously unwound parental DNA in the 5 v 3 direction by DNA polymerase o Helicases unwind the DNA poymerase parental double helix 1 15 r quot n gift 3913939 1 N epucrmou Thela In strand is 8 FOR 0 99 g synthesized discontinuously K quot191 RNA pnmer Primase synthesizes a short Primase RNA primer which is Okazak39 fmgmen extended by DNA polymerase v I being made to term an Okazaki lragment l merase quot Parental DNA PO Y I quotg 3 i 9 4 539 Aner the FINA primer is I e a t replaced by DNA by another DNA polymerase not shown DNA Iigase joins the Okazaki lragment to the growing DNA quot9838 strand Overall direction of replication Reference of pict httpswwwgooglecojpurlsaiamprctjampqampesrcsampsourceimagesampcdampcadrj aampuact8ampved0CAc0jquFQoTCOVdOdCDZccCFY8piAodA4YN4wampurlhttp3A 2F2Flikesuccesscom2Fdictionary2Freplication2FamppsigAFQjCNErTZMtd n oFKwkKY8EgUPXNAampust1441306582318540 Mutation httpswwwyoutubecomwatchveDbK0cxKKskampfeaturerelmfu Mutation Spontaneous Mutation happen when replicating the DNA or forming the gametes goes wrong It is not line up beautifully so it can not make one to one relation between A and T or between C and Gmutations that occur during famete formation Induced Mutation if radiation is causing this mutation which cues environmentally caused mutations eg radiation causing skin canner Point Mutation 539 AAGCTCGAATTC 339 339 TTCGAACTTAAG 539 Deletion and Insertion should not happen Large Scale mutation happens during mitosis or meiosis Inversions happen at prophase of mitosis and meiosis Translocation httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvC503LJrUGKcamplistPL6EF6ABQ39D875F3D Two copy of gene healthy copied gene masked unhealthy gene It is related sexmutation If those two copies are damaged and disabled by environmental cause then it leads cancer or etc Anemymukd mexmeIrzt mam mannatho canton campyaha an R 1quot Wang tuna lath mmmm v moans mow m Wamwm bum SYMQMMMd39opuo MAHrn Knbtmwatuteutnopdx comaMunme mow Iomluuocm lamentIRMA unit 3901 m W39IVIIJdIDL VU itquotvl y H who 1 Anni MM q Numbp 9J4 mwmmes d M Mmmmm W de RNAtranslation protein synthesis udra39 Lu 2 IWMthosoema men Protein synthesis step Transcript in nucleus gtmessenger mRNAgt translation in Ribosome Ribosome makes proteins Translation translate message to DNA tRNA reads bases Codon 3 bases Amino acid is a monomer of protein Note that there are 3 main area of your life where you can expose yourself to carcinogenstoxins that can cause induced mutation 1 What you eat 2 The products you use 3 Where you live the air you breath Essentially everything in your life Step or DNA translation After this process will meiosis start What is 539 or 339 direction DNA gyrate unzipping something Discontinuous bc relay on Okazaki fragment Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers or subunits of nucleic acids like DNA or RNA Original Strand CCA AGG UCC GGG GUC AGU UGA Point insertion CGC AAG GUC CGG GGU CAG UUG A Nucleotide Deletion CCA GGU CCG GGG UCA GUU GA What happen A from the second codon of original strand One base insertion or deletion can make very significant change Spontaneous Mutation Sequence changes change the order of mutation Pointsubstitution mutations when the DNA sequence is altered by only a few base pairs in a coding sequence Base substitution mutations a nucleotide or amino acid sequence is changed bc the nitrogenous base pairs are changed Env10 Exam 3 1 Watch the threeminute video quot18 things you should know about genetics httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvka0thYL6Y and list the eighteen things Answer PPquot 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Genes are the set of instruction that makes you you The set of instruction is stored in long strand called DNA DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid DNA39s home is chromosome Chromosomes are made up many genes One gene is a specific sequence the DNA on chromosomes that provides particular cellular instruction DNA is shaped like the latter that39s been twisted double helix Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Adenine Guanine thymine cytosine made up the latter Particular order of those 4 letters are extremely important because it who you are Sides of the latter are made sugar deoxyribose and phosphate group The entire DNA sequence is called genome This take 95 yeas for human to read It would take some typing at 10 words min for 8hours a day in 50 years for someone to type the entire genome f DNA extends it will be 6feet long If you are extended uncoiled then you will reach to the moon 6000 times All 3 billion of you genome will require 3GB for computer to store The entire DNA sequence will fill up 200 NYC telephone books All human are identical in 999 and only 01 will make us differ Less then 2 of DNA carries recognize structure to make proteins Remaining is junk DNA Coping a cell takes 8 hour 2 Define the following terms genes alleles genotype phenotype dominant recessive homozygous heterozygous intermediate trait sexlinked trait Answer Gene is a stretch of DNA or RNA that determines a certain trait Genes mutate and can take two or more alternative forms An allele is one of those form of a gene An allele is found on a chromosome Chromosomes occur in pairs so organisms have two alleles for each gene Reference httpwwwdiffencomdifferenceAllele vs Gene is particular alleles which of a gene an individual receive from its parents is the appearance of an individual How they look like controlled by their genotype is genetic information that produces dominant appearance nt is more readily expressed Recessive is genetic information that might not be expressed but it is carried from parent generation to offspring Recessive express produce recessive appearance phenotype only when genotype is double recessive Intermediate trait on textbook incomplete dominant Intermediate trait or incomplete dominant is a type of heredity which looks mixed characteristics from its parent For example crossing white flower to red flower produces an offspring colored by pink and colored neither white nor red Sex linked trait a genetic characteristic that is determined by genes located at sex chromosome 3 What is the difference between a polygenic trait and a pleitropic trait Answer Polygenic trait multiple gt1 genes control a single trait one gene controls multiple genes Reference lecture note 4 What does the equation G E P mean Answer G E P gt genetics environment including nutrition Phenotype 0r Phenotype ie appearance depends on genetics and environment 5 Be familiar with a genetic cross and the terms quotPquot quotF1quot and quotF2quot know how to draw and interpret twoway threeway and fourway Punnet squares for various types of crosses homozygous heterozygous etc Answer Punned square 3 ways Dadmom A A A AA AA A AA AA Mom is homozygous dominant AA Dad is homozygous dominantAA So the child is homozygous dominantAA Dadmom a a a aa aa a aa aa Mom is homozygous recessiveaa Dad is homozygous recessive aa So the child is homozygous recessiveaa M m m m M MM homozygous Mmheterozygou5 M Mmheterozygous mmhomozygous dominant recessive m Mmheterozygous mm m mm mm homozygous homozygous homozygous recessive recessive recessive 6 Be able to describe how blood type is determined using these alleles IA 0 IB 0 i Answer Blood Antigens on blood cells Genotype A Anti to B la la OR la i B Anti toA lb lb orbi AB Have both Antigens la lb 0 none none The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as self an gens if foreign antigens are discovered in your body antibodiesor immunoglobulins will be made by B cells of the immune system Which means if you get different blood type then your immune system activates to attack the foreign antigens Antigens antibodies agglutination phenotype antibodie A AntiB B AntiA AB none 0 AntiA and AntiB Type AB universal recipient Type O universal donor 7 Define DNA and be able to describe its key structural characteristics including the 4 DNA bases DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid ts shape is double helix 4 nucleotide subunits makes up DNA Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Because of the number of possible hydrogen bounds that 4 nucleotide subunits have is different Adenine always connect with Thyminethese have two ports for hydrogen bound and Guanine always connect with Cytosinethese have three ports for hydrogen bound There 4 units have 2 common parts all of them have one phosphate group and one 5 carbons sugar named deoxyribose The phosphate group and the deoxyribose make backbone of DNA The different organic nitrogencontaining base that make AGTC unique attaches to the backbone 8 Be able to transcribe a DNA basepair sequence into RNA and discuss protein synthesis Understand what the term genetic code means and the relationship between RNA codons and amino acids Answer Genetic code is the rules that govern DNA translation The genetic code is written by three ordered nucleotide pair units We call the set of three units codon or RNA codon And the most amino acid is specified with more then onecodon Protein synthesis has roughly 3 major steps DNA transcript gt RNA translation gt Protein The transfer of information occurs when an mRNA copy of gene is produced lst step Transcription is initiated when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to the special nucleotide called a promoter located the beginning of the gene Transcription phase produces mRNA 2nd step translation is initiated when mRNA transcript is used to direct the sequence of amino acid during the synthesis of polypeptides by ribosomes In this phase ribosomes gather required amino acid by mRNA and make a polypeptide amino acid which is a protein 9 Describe the processes involved in RNA splicing httpswwwdnalcorgresources3drna splicinghtml As DNA is transcribed into RNA it needs to be edited to remove noncoding regions or introns This editing process is called splicing which involves removing the introns leaving proteincoding regions called exons RNA splicing begins with assembly of helper proteins at the intronexon borders These splicing factors act as beacons to guide small nuclear ribo proteins to form a splicing machine called the spliceosome The spliceosome then brings the exons on either side of the intron very close together ready to be cut One end of the intron is cut and folded back on itself to join and form a loop The spliceosome then cuts the RNA to release the loop and join the two exons together The edited RNA and intron are released and the spliceosome disassembles This process is repeated for every intron in the RNA Numerous spliceosomes shown here in purple assemble along the RNA Each spliceosome removes one intron releasing the loop before disassembling In this example three introns are removed from the RNA to leave the complete instructions for a protein 10 Define the following terms nucleotide nitrogenous base base pair amino acid protein and be able to describe how each term relates to the other Answer Nucleotide is a organic molecules so it contains carbon more precisely it composed of nitrogenous base and 5 carbon sugar It serves as the monomers or subunit of nucleic acid like DNA 11 Distinguish between different types of mutations including germline mutations somatic tissue mutations and pointsubstitution mutations base substitution mutations insertions and deletions Answer Germline mutations germline mutations exist in the patient39s germ cell ie egg or sperm So this type of mutations can inherit from parents to a child Somatic tissue mutations These mutations are not present from parent to child These mutations can arise in any cell in the body at anytime in life This Point mutations point mutation has the two types Frameshift mutations deletion or insertion Substitution mutations one letter of DNA is switched with incorrect one This is usually cased by damaging DNA by exposure of radiation or smoking 12 Describe how a mutation in DNA transcription could lead to a malfunctioning protein 13 Know the difference between DNA sequencing DNA fingerprinting and PCR Describe the Human Genome Project 14 After going through the PBS animation on how to create a transgenic organism httpwwwpbsorgwgbhharvestengineertransgenhtml describe the steps How is recombinant DNA involved Answer for 14 1 Take the toxin gene from a stretch of Bt DNA and combine it with a vector a Added a gene from the DNA of Bt to a vector A vector is a short piece of DNA capable of relocating on its own when inside a bacterial cell The DNA of the gene and the DNA of the vector now form a continuous loop of DNA b Another gene has also been added to the vector This gene will make plants resistant to a specific herbicide 2 Add the vector to the bacterium a The vector which incorporates the Bt gene is now inside an Agrobacterium cell b Agrobacterium a bacterium that causes disease in plant has the ability to tranfer a portion of its DNA into plant cells c One inside a plant cell its DNA will be incorporated into the DNA of one of the plant39s chromosomes 3 Move the bacteria to the growth medium a The Agrobacterium cell growth in number by dividing Each time one of its cells divides so do the vector within it b Soon there are a million or more copies of the bacterium and of the vector that contains the Bt gene 4 Add pieces of the tomato plant39s leaf to the bacteria a You have added small pieces of a tomato plant39s leaf to the Agrobacteria The DNA of the bacteria enters the cells of the leaf and the cell39s nuclei b The vector39s DNAwhich include the Bt and herbicideresistant genes becomes integrated with the plant cell39s DNA 5 Move the plant cells to the growth medium for plants a This growth medium promotes the regeneration of plants As the plant cells multiply they form stems roots and new leaves 6 Spray herbicide on the plant cuttings a Have exposed the plant cells to herbicide Only cells with the herbicide resistant gene survive Since the Bt gene is present only in the plant cells that include the herbicideresistant gene only those cell are capable of growing 7 Transfer the plant to the growth chamber a The regenerated cutting is planted in soilor a mixture that resembles soil and allowed to mature 8 Examine the plant to determine if it has the desired trait a To test if this tomato plant is resistant to a targeted pestin this case a caterpillar the pest was allowed to eat the plant39s leaves b Since only plants that have successfully incorporated the Bt gene will kill the pest the death of this and other caterpillars indicate that you were successful 15 Define epigenetics Use the concepts of the formula GE P M the concept of epigenetics to describe how identical twins can end up being very different Epigenetics the conditioning of genetic DNA by the parents also called reprograming Epigenetics changes its condition by environmental situation including food So even though twins are very similar and have similar genetics when they were born their environmental situation physically activity nutrition and exposure of toxin affects on their epigenetics and so it affects on their phenotype as well As a result twins become unique 16 Describe how a combination of a DNA mutation and epigenetics can lead to cancen DNA is the first set of instruction to maintain our body The epigenetics are considered to be the second set of instruction The exposure of toxin influences to the epigenetics Then epigenetics intact with DNA active or suppress the expression of a particular gene f epigenetics interaction goes abnormally it can cause DNA mutation because the epigenetics are directly related to DNA 17 Define evolution Define the difference between evolution and microevolution contrast homologous vs analogous structures contrast natural and artificial and sexual selection Evolution Microevolution Homologous structures although the structures and function of the bone have diverged they are derived from the same body part present in common ancestor Analogous structure similar looking feature that is found in different lineages come to reassemble each other as result of parallel evolutionary adaptions to similar environment Artificial selection the breeder selects for the desired characteristic Natural selection the environmental conditions determines which kind of individual in a population are the best fit Sexual selection completion for mating opportunity 1 The better male parent the more offspring she is likely to rear successfully 2 The bigger territory make parent have maximize the reproductive success 3 Ensuring that a female39s offspring receive good genes from their father A Microcosmic Tree of Life 200 points Your goal to populate a minuscule snapshot of the biological Tree of Life You will research and describe a total of 20 separate species corresponding to the major domains kingdoms and phyla outlined on the tree For each species you will provide a the full scienti c name b a brief description of the species outstanding morphological characteristics 510 words c a brief description of the species key evolutionary adaptations 520 words d the sources of your information DOMAINS BACTERIA I ARC HAEA EUKARYA 1 GrampositivelName 5m 3 Extremophile Name MW M It belongs to Archaea Crenarchaeota Thermoprotei Sulfolobales It is an anaerobic rodshaped bacterium in Gram Sulfolobaceae p9539t39Ve Its Flass 395 ACFmObaFter39a and 391 belongs to Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is responsible for the oxidation of sulfur acid B39 dObaCter39aceae as quot5 fam39IY production It is classified as acidophiles and thermophiles because they It is often found in human bOdY quotE can re5i5t to low Phi growth optimally at pH 23 and temperature between 7580 C and t 395 900d for health Adaptat39on to b39le Stress 395 respectively It lives in solfataric springs and is found in Yellowstone Signi cant National Park httpaemasmorocontent73216757ful W httDSIen 39Wi ki Dedia 39OmIWi kiBi dObaCteri u m a nima I is httpwwwmapo ifeorgtopicstopic 354 ExtremophilesArchaea and httpwwwotsuka h d b t 2 ht I Bacteria httpwwwmicrobiologyonlineorgukabout microbiologyintroducing microbesarchaea 2 Cyanobacteria Name Microcystis aeruginosa 4 ExtremophileName Methanococcoides burtonii It belongs to the class of Cyanophyceae and the Mburtonii belongs to Euryachaeota Methanomicrobia family of Microcystaces It can form harmful algal Methanosarichales Methanosarcinaceae Unlike bloods of economic The Protoplast is blue color to Sacidocaldarius it lives at the bottom of Ace Lake in optical effects of gas lled vesicleswikipedia Antarctica where the average temperature is 05 C it can httpsenwikipedia ordWikiMicrocvstisaeruqinosa also survive at Because this microbe has exible proteins which are more rigid and stable than proteins living at higher temperatures it can carry out basic cell function under extreme condition httpsmicrobewikikenyoneduzindexphpMethanococcoi w httpwwwmicrobiologyonlineorgukzabout microbioloqvintroducinqmicrobesarchaea KINGDOMS OF EUKARYA PROTISTA FUNGI PLANTAE ANIMA LIA 5 Name Euglena graciis It belongs to Eukaryota Protista Pyrrophyta Euglenoidea Euglenales Euglenaceae Egraciis can grow in the dark when it loose its chloroplasts instead it uses it39s heterotopic metabolic strategy Egraciis39s chloroplast can be gained again when it exposes to light httpsmicrobewikikenvoneduindexphpEuole nagracilis httpcassi cationofthekinodomsweeblvcomp rotistaexampleshtml 7 Name Rhisopus stoonifer It belongs to Fungi Mucorales Mucoraceae haopus It is better known as Black bread mold Asexual spores are formed within pinheadlike sporangia that break to release the spores when it becomes mature This is a heterothallic in which sexual reproduction between mating types and comes in contact httpsenwikipediaorgzwikizBlackbre ad mold 8 Bryophyte Name Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson This is categorized as Plantae Bryophyta Bryosida Hypnales Hypnaceae Hypnum It is dioecism and resist to UV and not resist to high temperature httpmossplancoipzukanhaihtm httpsawikipediaorgzwikiE3838F E382A4E382B4E382Bl 6Name Amoeba proteuspreviously Chaos dif uens It belongs to Eularyota Protista Tubulinea Tubulinida Amoebidae It uses tentacular protuberances to move and smaller unicellular organisms that are enveloped inside of the cell s cytoplasm in a food vacuole in which enzymes slowly break them down httpsenwikipediaorowikiAmoeba proteus 9 Pterophyte Name Osumunda japonica Japanese royal fern It belongs to Pteridophyta Polypodiopsida Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmunda with the section of Euosmunda It is a deciduous herbaceous plant that produces separate fertile and sterile fronds spreading up to 80100cm Because of deciduous it cannot resist to dryness and freeze httpsenwikipediaorowikiOsmundaJaponica 10 Angiosperm Name lpomoea niMorning glory This belongs to Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterid Solanales Convolvulaceae One ower has calyx petal stamen and pistil from outside to inside respectively It opens its ower at the middle of summer httpsiawikipediaorowiki E382A2E382BSE382ACE382AA 11 Gymnosperm Name Cryptomeria japonica This belongs to PinophytaPinopsida Pinales Cupressaveae Taxodioideae and Cryptomeria Cryptomeria is a monotypic genus of conifer in the cypress It includes only one species Cryptomeria japonica which is endemic toJapan and called Sugi It has Anemophily or wind pollination and so it widely distributed httpsiawikipediaorowikiE382BQE382AE PHYLA OF ANIMALIA SPONGES CNIDARIAN FLATWORM NEMATODE MOLLUSK ANNELIDS ARTHROPOD ECHINOD CHORDA S S S S S ERMS TES 12 13Name 14 Name 15 Name 16Name 17Name 18 Name 19 Name 20 Name Name Aurelia aurita Pseudoceros Ascaris Octopus Myrianida Allomyrina Forma Cans aureus Calyspongia picifera aka Moon bifurcus lumbricoides vulgars pachycera dichotoma moniis This This specie It belongs to jelly sh it belongs to It belongs to This is classi ed This specie is This specie is specie belong belongs to Animalia Porifera It belongs to Platyhelminthes Secernentea as Mollusca classi ed as classi ed as to Asteroidea Mammalia Callyspongia Scyphozoa Turbellaria Ascaridida CephalopodaO Polychaeta Insecta ValvatidaGoni Carnivora This sponges lives in Semaeostomeae Polycladia Ascarididae ctopoda Phyllodocida Coleoptera asteridae CanidaeCanis the bottom of water Ulmaridae and Pseudocerotidae Ascaris Octopodidae Syllidae and Scarabaeidae and Formia and eject from Aurelia It lives in Pseudoceros The vulva is Octopus Myrianida Allomyrina This specie is This specie is mouth named ocean water quotExternal located in the It is suggested It generates the A male very sensitive highly quotosculumquot at the top temperatures anatomy Dorsal anterior end and that clonelike Adichotoma has a to change in adaptable to of the sponge They between 6 to 31 surface with a accounts for cephalopods do individuals huge horn The pH and any food can control water C with optimum background about 13 of its not stolons and horn is considered temperature source from ow by closing the temperature varying from body length osmoregulate confers the to be a result of It feeds on fruit to osculum They between 9 and 19 greenbluish to Uteri may That implies reproductive sexual selection encrusting ungulates It reproduce sexually C It has a strong cream with an 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beginning at the cerebral eyespot fading into a white median stripe that ends close to the posterior margin quot httpeolorgpag W s httpbiowebuwa xedubi02035201 4tra ntram httbsbiowebuwl axedubi02 03520 14tran tramclas Mm animalsznemato daroundworms htm minimum requirement salinity and so it is fatal to introduce signi cant amount of fresh water httpsawikipe MGM E3839E E38380 E382B3 delineate high resolution phylogenetic relationship httpwwwqbrio rgauSpeciesList Myrianidapachy ceralAugener19 137CAlexandr aNaasm moid267 tm httbsenwikipedia orgzwikijlapanese rhinocerosbeetle scite note1 httpwwwsta r shchreefe W mstar sh httpwwwb U W m JFOd UC ED we Mimi 1 261ampdid2 httbsenwiki Dediaorqwiki Golden 39ackal I si cationhtm