Popular in General Biology I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030-003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Chapter 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/02/15
8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells SECTIONS 31317 Sections 3133 Introduction to Organic Compounds I Idea that structure is related to function 0 The shape of a molecule and what it can do 0 If the structure is messed up the function is also disrupted I Ex Sickle Cell Anemia hemoglobin shape changes as well as red blood cells Carbon I Organic compounds are carbon based 0 Arrangement details and how they affect the function of the molecule I Carbon has characteristics that make it biologically diverse 0 Makes up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms double triple and many other ways of bonding I Carbon Skeletons 0 Length bonds double bonds up to 4 covalent branching horizontally rings hexagon Isomers I Made up of same types and numbers of atoms but they are arranged differently 0 Difference between taking meth and Sudafed even though they have the same formula they are arranged differently making the result of taking the drug different Organic Compounds 0 Properties 0 Size of carbon skeleton 0 Shape of carbon skeleton 0 The functional groups of atoms that are attached to the skeleton I Change the shape and function I Contain oxygen or nitrogen I Oxygen has a strong electronegativity which then makes the functional group polar I PolarHydrophilic loves water Soluble in water I Trick to remember Polarity I PolarHydrophi1ic polar bears love water I 0 Functional Groups I Hydroxyl Group oxygen bound to a hydrogen I Carbonyl Group oxygen double bonded with carbon I Carboxyl Group combination of carbonyl and hydroxyl I Amino Group nitrogen bound to two hydrogen 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 I Phosphate Group phosphorous atom attached to 4 oxygen I Methyl Group NO oxygen or nitrogen so it is not polar however it will change the shape of a carbon skeleton still making it a functional group 0 Macromolecules 0 Lipids fats More complex I Made of heads with chains of fatty acids Carbohydrates polysaccharide Proteins polypeptide Nucleic Acids DNA RNA Polymers I Large molecules made up many smaller subunits that are attached to each 0000 other 0 Monomers I Single subunit that makes up polymers How are polymers made and broken 0 Polymers are all macromolecules except for lipids 0 Formation of polymers is by the dehydration reaction I Pull water out of the reactants final product 0 Breaking polymers is by hydrolysis reaction I Water is going into the reaction and the water is then separated 0 Both processes require water being put in or taken out Enzymes help form and break polymers and they are special proteins that are involved with chemical reactions but are not changed by the chemical reaction Sections 3437 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates 0 How they store or transport energy 0 Big carbohydrates starch are polymers 0 Small carbs glucose is a monomer 0 Complex CarbsPolysaccharides O Dehydration reaction Glucose and Fructose have the same formula with different structures making it work and taste different Most sugars have a number of hydroxyl groups making it functional hydrophilic and polar They also mostly have a carbonyl group but the placement changes Simple Sugars 0 Have some type of variation on the CHZO Most common drawn as a ring as it is mostly dissolved in a ring type form Sucrose 2 monomers are attached to each other glucose fructose to make a polymer with a dehydration reaction making a bond between the two monomers making a polysaccharide Polysaccharides 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Fiber sources Humans cannot break them down Functions 0 Storage energy carbon 0 Structure cellulose provides structure With plants Starch 0 Long chain of glucose monomers O For plants to use as energy storage Glycogen 0 Branching chain of glucose monomers 0 Used for energy storage by animals including humans Cellulose 0 Cross linked by hydrogen bonds 0 Humans do not have the capability to break down cellulose 0 Chain of glucose monomers Sections 38311 Lipids Lipids Hydrophobic Non polar Does not mix in water oil Primarily made of carbon and hydrogen 0 Not huge electronegativity difference making it nonpolar 0 Linked by non polar covalent bonds 3 types of lipids 0 Fats I Long term energy storage better than carbs I Harder to get rid of fat I Made of glycerol and fatty acids I Triglycerides 3 fatty acids from the glycerol head I Dehydration reaction I Saturated vs unsaturated fats hydrogen 0 Saturated single bonds between carbons meaning it has the max amount of hydrogens butter 0 Unsaturated atleast one double bond between the carbons can be more than one at some point there Will be a double bon With the carbons making it not have the max amount of hydrogen bends or kinks the fatty acid because of bends they cannot pack close together making them liquid at room temp olive oil 0 Phospholipids membranes I Has good structure and function 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 I Similar structure to fats I Only two fatty acids off of the head I Phosphate group is attached to the head as well I The head is hydrophilic and the tails are hydrophobic I Inside needs to be water and the outside needs to be water making the membrane a bilayer so that the hydrophobic portion can be away from water I We need hydrophilic parts on both sides of the membrane 0 Steroids I Cholesterol animal cell membranes 0 Stability I Anabolic 0 Manmade O Builds muscle mass 0 Medical uses anemia I Different structure I Has 4 rings that are fused or attached to each other I Variable Used for long term energy storage Not polymersmore complex Not so large compared to carbohydrates Sections 312314 Proteins Proteins Mass amount of functions Thousands of types Make up structures Polymers made up from amino acids Proteins are made up of 20 different amino acids Alphabet of letters and alphabet of amino acids 0 Amino group N2H O Carboxyl Group carbon oxygen OH O R Group diversity within the amino acid 0 Carbonyl group carbon and hydrogen R group makes the amino acid have its own characteristics chemical O Acidic 0 Basic 0 Hydrophilic O Hydrophobic Peptide Bond Formation 0 Bond between two amino acids Different polypeptide chains can take on different shapes which leads to different functions 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 0 Different polypeptide chains can take on different shapes which leads to different functions 0 The shape directly impacts the function which comes from the interactions and the sequence of the amino acids 0 Denaturation 0 Protein is exposed to a stress pH chemical heat making it fall apart losing the interactions 0 If the structure is destroyed the function is lost 0 The protein is then unfolded and the protein loses its function 0 Chaperone keeps the protein from unfolding 4 Levels of Protein Structure 0 Primary 0 Amino acid sequence 0 Chain of amino acid 0 When protein denatures the primary structure sequence is not change even though the others can be 0 encoded for by DNA 0 Secondary 0 Coilingfolding 0 Hydrogen bonds are between parts of the primary structure 0 Location of bonds alpha helix or beta pleated sheet 0 Tertiary 0 3D structure of a protein 0 Overall structure 0 3Dinteractionsbonds between the R groups 0 Where alpha helix is in comparison to beta pleated sheet 0 Sometimes with R group interactions disulfide bridges occur 0 Quaternary 0 More than one polypeptide interacting with each other 0 4 polypeptides interacting with each other to make one protein Sections 315317 Nucleic Acids DNA amp RNA 0 DNA determines the primary structure 0 DNA 0 Deoxyribonucleic acid 0 Inherited 0 Leads to production to other thigs as well as carries its own direction for its replication 0 Ribonucleic acid 0 The intermediary between DNA and proteins 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 Central Dogma DNARNAProteins Transcription O DNARNA nucleic acids transcribingnot changing Translation 0 RNAProteins from a nucleic acid to a protein translating how to do something Replication 0 DNA makes more of itself Reverse Transcription 0 Use of RNA to make DNA Polymers of nucleotide Nucleotides are joined by a dehydration reaction 3 Basic Parts 0 Phosphate group 0 Sugar I DNAdeoxyribose one less hydroxyl group than ribose I RNAribose I Both 5 carbon sugars O Nitrogenous base I Adenine guanine thymine cytosine Properties of Nitrogenous Bases O Bases can change but the phosphate and sugar stay the same 0 Two types of nitrogenous bases I Pyrimidines one ring Has a Y I Cytosine C thymine T uracil U I Purines two rings 0 Adenine A Guanine G 0 DNA I Deoxyribose I A G C T I Double stranded 0 RNA I Ribose I A G C U I Single stranded Structures of a Nucleic Acid Strand 0 Backbone repeating sugar phosphate 0 Phosphodiester bonds 0 Variable region I Order of the nitrogenous bases on the nucleotides I Different sequence of purines or pyrimidines 8312015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 0 Base Pair Rules 0 0 00000 Purines and pyrimidines pair together with two strands of DNA connected with hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases and nucleotides Can only pair in specific ways DNA strands are complimentary meaning you can accurately predict the outcome of the other strand Adenine pairs with Thymine in DNA Adenine pairs with Uracil in transcription to RNA Thymine pairs with Adenine in transcription to RNA Guanine pairs with Cytosine in DNA and in transcription to RNA With RNA C and G pairing will not change but if there is an A in the first strand there will not be a T in the second strand leaving A to pair with U but if you have a T in the first strand you can still pair it with an A in a second strand The number of hydrogen bonds differ between pairs of nitrogenous bases I A and T have two hydrogen bonds 39 C and G have three hydrogen bonds I More strands more energy it takes to break the bond
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'