Bioethics Textbook Notes
Bioethics Textbook Notes PHIL 1030 - 002
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by hannah gagnon on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Joshua Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice of Bioethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/02/15
Bioethics 82615 james F Childress Who shall live when not all can live US vs Holmes pg 36 We want criteria that will be acceptable and applicable for MULTIPLE CASES general criteria Childress ideascriteria 1 Identify the medically acceptable candidates he says that you have to have a reasonable chance that the surgery will work 2 Random Selection based on DIGNITY If you are a person you have dignity Establishes equality of opportunity Also eliminates problems that can arise such as a People focusing on selfinterest b Bypasses unknown social valueworth Social worth utilitarian way of thinking social value Can you base the right to life on someone s accomplishments How can you de ne or measure social worth SOCIAL WORTH AND SOCIAL VALUE ARE HARD TO QUANTIFY Bioethics 83115 Jonas human experimentation 1969 written in response to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Stanford Prison Experiment research Milgram Experiment shows that people will submit to authority even if it means hurting someone else jonas is worried that if you take a utilitarian view on human experiments it will lead to a negative idea 1 A utilitarian would view the human subject of the experiment as a sample a test subject 2 They would see the experiment as helping the good of everyone by sacri cing the personhood of the test subject jonas has three principles 1 Averting a disaster carries more weight than promoting a public good A public good is picking up litter food pantries etc If someone was attacking Auburn you should focus on saving the campus over focusing on picking up litter 2 Extraordinary danger excuses extraordinary means If North Korea drops a huge amount of armies in a desolate area of Colorado it would be appropriate to blow up the area 3 Human experimentation is an extraordinary mean The only time it is allowable is when there is extraordinary danger Who determines and how is it determined what an extraordinary danger is An extraordinary danger is a danger in which a society is in danger of failing to exist when the death rate surpasses the birth rate there is a societal danger Ex Ebola posed a danger of three African countries populations being completely annihilated ls cancer an extraordinary danger no because it s not affecting society people in the society can get it but the society as a whole does not fail because of it Bioethics 9215 lonas continued WHO should be experimented on Three ways to distinguish based on 1 Freedom 2 Motivation 3 Knowledge Jonas believes that quotnobles obligequot noble obligation Idea that the top people of society quotowequot society their bodies to be experimented on because they were lucky enough to be born into an upper class Who is at the top Doctors and scientists Why would we want doctors and scientists They will care more They have the knowledge of the procedures and tests They will double check procedures because they re the ones being tested Bioethics 9215 McCormick to save or let die ls life an absolute good or is it a relative good To say life is an absolute good is to say that life is sacred To say life is a relative good is to examine the quality of life over the basic lifeness of life McCormick wants to answer the question of when if ever it s okay to pull the plug on someone McCormick is a relative good guy What is life relative to For the Christian life is relative to your spiritual ends how much in communion with God you are McCormick thinks one uni es himself with God through human relationships loving God and loving one other are the same thing Do medicine and machinery pose a problem for the JudeoChristian meaning of a ful lled life Now technology can keep people alive without them having human relationships does that compromise the meaningfulness of their life If the potential for human relationships is simply nonexistent or utterly submerged and undeveloped in the mere struggle for life then that life has achieved its potential How do you de ne quothuman relationshipquot Bioethics Daniel Callahan Doctors scientists ask Can we Practical Bioethicists ask Should we Abstract Nature of right vs wrong nature of reality knowledge life etc Callahan comes along and decides that philosophers needed to be more geared towards medicine and biology bioethicists First bioethicists were lost amp confused on what they were supposed to do 1973 Callahan writes a book of rulesroles Roles of a Bioethicist 1 Able to pinpoint what issues raise moral concerns ex transplants euthanasia abortion endoflife decisions genetic engineering stem cell research cloning 2 able to form a methodology for solving said questionsconcerns gameplan what you use in order to solve a problem ex Science s methodology scientific method proscons list What is the best methodology for solving biomedical issues Callahan doesn t propose a methodology he just proposes that a form of methodology is needed 3 Help the doctor scientist make decisions Bioethicists give education and advice to doctors about what should happen in certain situations write articles books etc Bioethicists should avoid Disciplinary Reductionism What is this taking a complex case and reducing it down to a simple issue stripping away at an issue until you have a single thing to analyze comfortable for the person doing the analyzing ex Utilitarianism you should do what produces the most amount of happiness for the most people the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few Bioethicists should realize that a case is complex and that every point involved is important and pertinent to analyze as a whole text pg 18 bottom paragraph important go through and highlight REREAD ARTICLES Bioethicists should strive for the language of ordinary moral thought and discourse Why Main audience is doctors and scientists you want to speak in a way that both parties can coherently understand and follow basic moral terms Also to present the patients with their options in a way that isn t too abstract Bioethicists should have an unfettered imagination What does this mean Openmindedness To have the ability to see in and through the case to see alternatives to think outside the box New and fresh ideas ex Dr House Methodology Should not be rigidly structured technology changes all the time changes the types of questions we ask in bioethics Your methodology should be like bamboo moves with the wind but doesn39t get knocked down keep your beliefs but allow yourself to go with the flow of the case Should be specifically structured should be structured only for medicine and biology adding other fields allow room for error Should give reasonably clear answers you don39t want 50 answers Should take an interdisciplinary approach employing research from other disciplines cultural studies law and politics sociology psychology Leon R Kass 1971 Technology used to make our lives easier to SERVE us Earliest technology communication telegrams phones etc transportation cars bicycles etc Man has the ability to change ourselves Kass Biomedical technology object is now about improving and changing the human body In the 19705 scientists were asking CAN we clone change genetic material etc Nobody was asking SHOULD we clone change genetic material etc This raises the concern of what humans hold morally sacred and if we were violating these principles Kass believes that there needed to be people trained to ask should BIOETHICISTS He is very conservative doesn t trust technology believes too much technology would make our moral landscape less solid Bioethics Lecture 82415 Stephen Toulmin What doctors had been doing saved philosophical ethics Toulmin believed that philosophy was becoming too abstract There was a debate going on between Dogmatists Relativists Ethics are objective No objectivity Universal rules No universal rules rules are culturally determined All that is needed is sound judgment Toulmin brought up the idea of casuistry case by case way of thinking about morality TOULMIN S METHODOLOGY Casuistry was originally started by Aristotle ignored in the early 1900s Toulmin brought this concept back to public view by identifying doctors as cauistrists Notion of practical judgmentreasoningpractical wisdom Domain of ethics set an end how do you achieve that end What means do you use and what are the most appropriate ways to achieve those ends Ex End graduating from Auburn Practical means going to class studying getting an A Less practical means cheating lying bribery both will get you to the same end but which is more ethically practical Doctors have an objectivity does this treatment help the patient There is an objective yes or no Fact based not up for subjectivity Casuistry cont Case by case methodology To apply casuistry to a case you need to know ALL of the facts of the case This way you can ascertain if a certain action is right or wrong based on the facts of the case You cannot make a decision based on minimal facts Casuist says that there are not ethical rules Rebecca stole bread stealing is wrong therefore Rebecca is in the wrong NO according to a casuist because you don t have enough information to know why she stole bread who she stole from etc Doctors are casuists we must know a rich case history in order to make a judgment EX Two people come in with a cough a doctor cannot assume that both patients have the same af iction just because they have the same symptoms he must ascertain the difference between the two cases textbook pg 29 1 Ethics and clinical medicine are both prime examples of the concrete fields of thought and reasoning in which the theoretical rigor of geometrical argument is unattainable fields in which we should above all strive to be reasonable rather than insisting on a kind of exactness that the nature of the case does not allow To be able to pinpoint and decide what is morally relevant in a case is an important skill to attain as a casuist EX You re in a crowded subway you see a child that you inherently know is lost Some may assume that the adults around him are his parents but there is something that people possess that can allow them to ascertain to pinpoint the actual situation this is what Toulmin was trying to foster ETHICS SHOULD RESEMBLE MEDICINE according to the casuist Start thinking about where you fall in the dogmatist vs casuist debate Toulmin focuses on two things Relationships and Reasonableness Relationship determines conduct different types of relationships garner different actions ex A teacher asking you to help them move vs a good friend asking you to help them move ex Visiting a gynecologist the questions he asks you in the situation is appropriate but if he saw you outside the office at a party and asked you the same questions it would be deemed inappropriate Equity is fairness the same as equality Toulmin says NO Ex Two students miss an exam One missed because she was in a car accident the other missed because she was hungover Toulmin says that the two should NOT be treated equally because of reasonability The first student tried getting to the exam the other didn t The situations were completely different and therefore should be dealt with differently 1 Bioethics An Introduction to the History Methods and Practice Third Edition by Nancy
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