Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes EEES1130
Popular in Down to Earth: Envrnmt Science
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin.Bucher@rockets.utoledo.edu Notetaker on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EEES1130 at University of Toledo taught by Spongberg,A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Down to Earth: Envrnmt Science in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/02/15
Monday August 31 2015 The Scienti c Method Science Process used to solve problems and to develop an understanding of nature 0 Involves testing possible answers 0 Restricts itself to objective observation Basic Assumptions of Science 0 Speci c causes exist for observed events 0 Causes can be identi ed 0 General rules or patterns can be used to describe observations 0 Repeated events probably have the same cause Perceptions are not individualistic Scienti c Method Process that involves forming possible solutions to questions followed by rigorous testing to determine if the proposal solutions are valid 0 A way of gaining information facts about the world Elements of the Scienti c Method 1 Make observation 0 Based on senses or extension of our senses to record an event Use of a microscope telescope thermometer etc 2 Ask questions 0 Find background information Can the question be answered 3 Form hypothesis 0 Statement that provides a possible explanation for an observation Must be testable 4 Test hypothesis 0 With experiment try to recreate an event to support or disprove a hypothesis Use statistics 5 Draw conclusions 0 Results support hypothesis WhyWhy not Results must be reproducible by others 6 Revise hypothesis 0 Science requires continuous revision nCass writing gt Design experiment to test the survival of bears eating salmon vs minnows Communicate Results 0 Scientists The Public Economists Politicians Scienti c Method PseudoScience Scienti c results reevaluation criticism and modi cation Scienti c Theory Plausible generalization about a scienti c concept this is supported by multiple scienti c results 0 Testable with the scienti c method 0 Widely accepted by scientists Scienti c Law Constant fact of nature that describes what happens 0 Gravity Physical things Planets etc undergo Deceptive practice that uses appearance of language of science to convince confuse or mislead people into thinking something is scienti cally valid when it s not 0 Selective presentation data omitted o Politically motivated distortion of science 0 Attribution of false info to a respected researcher or organization 0 quotWall Street Journal reports CDC nds organic foods can kill youquot 0 When you have a predetermined answer to a question it s not science How do you know if it s PseudoScience Examine the observations facts underlying conclusions Do those reporting the conclusions have a con ict of interest Can observations be veri ed or repeated by others Does the conclusion account for all observations Is it supported by the scienti c community Can it be found in peer review science journals Christopher Monkton Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchely Former advisor to UK Prime Minister Thatcher Has a degree in classics and diploma is journalism Considered expert on global warming 0 2014 Warmest year Wednesday September 2 2015 Chemistry and Physics 0 Why do we need to know about this 0 What does it have to do with the environment 0 Important for understanding 0 Energy Water VVaste Air Agriculture 0000 Energy Principles 0 Energy Ability to perform work or change condition 0 Work An object is moved over a distance 0 Kinetic energy Energy contained by moving objects 0 Potential energy Energy due to relative position Potential E Eliquot Kinetic energy Kinetic enlerg Laws of Thermodynamics 0 1st Law Energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only be changed from one form to another 0 example Catching wood on re 0 2nOI Law When converting energy from one form to another some of the useful energy is lost to entropy 0 example Body heat from eating food 0 Entropy Energy that cannot be used to do useful work a measure of disorder waste Earth i iiide s myxgiem Enemy Used and Lost FOREVER Entropy Demostration Pickup sticks 0 Grab them in hand ordered 0 Drop them disordered o The ordered state high energy content becomes disordered state low energy content with the loss of energy entropy Eintriy Ia ntiing ma aT a a transpicirt iEri rues are 236 ef cient 0 Corn production requires lots of ENERGY inputs in the forms of sunlight petro fuels and fertilizer indirectly petro fuels In the process a lot of energy is lost through entropy For example the internal combustion engine only converts about 20 of the energy contained in fuel into actual work The rest is lost as waste heat entropy Application Corn to Ethanol IWEi EI l l39lll 39 f n Ermaii l U 1 1 I 1 my L i U im mlm H i mmmmmn H a i l i 7 77A7i 5 l7 i if i cam IE WE httpa findianaethannlprducarsatirg draLmill mgmtml Ewei Eiiin39im titl gi39il39wr39snaeJrl n drumlni39 The Ethanol Energy Equation 7 Ex A llllidden Enstl Switch Entropy and then quotwastequotthis is an imperfect slide which mixes concepts The algal boom is a result of displaced fertilizer and although the fertilizer represents a signi cant energy investment the algal bloom is not disorganized at the energetic level it s simply as a result of a resource out of place TO describe it as entropy requires a rather sophisticated and highly constrained conception model de ned SOLELY with respect to energy ow into food and all other losses as entropy Writing Assignment What are the positive outcomes related to producing ethanol What are the negative outcomes related to production of ethanol What is the actual price including the externalties of ethanol gaso ne HoW much energy work was required to produce that product Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Phosphorus is dissolved in water Dissolved phosphorus is negatively charged ion Transported through drainage Accumulates at Maumee Bay Matter Anything that has a mass and takes up space 0 All matter is made up of one or more fundamental subunits called atoms Element There are 92 naturally occurring types of atoms in nature known as elements Elements are distinguished by atomic number that is by the number of protons in it s nucleus Fri Table of Edema ii Hal Combinations of Atoms Molecules Atoms bonded together into stable units 0 Compounds Two or more atoms or ions chemically bonded to one another 0 Water 0 Sugar 0 Chemical Bond Energy that holds atoms together Mixtures Combinations of atoms or molecules not chemically bonded 0 Honey several sugarswater 0 Concrete cement sand and gravel 0 Air various gases including nitrogen and oxygen Ions Electrically charges particles such as atoms 0 of electrons gt of protons negative charge H o of electrons lt of protons positive charge Opposites Attract httpwwwnorthlandccmnusbiologyBiologyl111animationsd issolvehtm One Way to Remove Phosphate 7 I l 7 Vl LJ by V Cr I39ll 39 quot 39tieilliil eljglr g 3 g charged I paetic Phosphate Ci m emhran 39Ci if l e u a Q It I t39 i ll 1 c l u 1quot 1 IE 2 i I g Inorganic Matter 0 Has no carbon or an uncomplexed arrangement of carbon without hydrogen 0 Small molecules 10 0 Few kinds 0 Minerals salt water metals sand oxygen Organic Matter 0 Contains carbon atoms 0 Carbon usually in rings or chains 0 All living things contain organic matter 0 Large molecules 0 Many kinds 0 Natural gas oil coal sugars proteins fats ethanol Acids Bases and pH 0 Acid Compound that releases hydrogen ions in a solution H Base Compound that accepts hydrogen ions in a solution OH Hydroxide lons o m A number that gives the concentration of an acid or base solution 1 Battery acid b 239 lemon 3mm HumanDH pi u 3 managir n in Atrial mm i iuillilsihsr flai 4 E i Fish n lpi 39 iuiilelm attested a E Hormel mange precpita n Fii39lliilli Nil Ullrilil 3r H l l l all Ira raga l EFF stream water liiizsziailri l Baiting Sada r ii in a 393 sea water 3 Milk of Magnesia quot E1 1 7 Jim r g ril J igrrt iH H a l 1 3 77 ibis 39E u g we Environm EH17 Ea aeia 14 iimk r iiti ri itx ijm Chemical ReactionsOzone Depletion Bh ama 4 lt 1 a 39 Ghl zring 93 Eu ght o I x 1 11
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