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Chapter 1 Terms

by: Marissa Geiger

Chapter 1 Terms Hist H105

Marissa Geiger
American History to 1877
Richard Weiner

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These are the notes over the Chapter 1 terms.
American History to 1877
Richard Weiner
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Geiger on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist H105 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by Richard Weiner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.


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Date Created: 09/02/15
Chapter 1 Terms Artifacts material remains studied and used by archaeologists and historians to support interpretations of human history 0 Examples bones pots jewelry baskets furniture tools clothing and buildings Archeologists focus on physical objects artifacts Pangaea gigantic common landmass broke up continents to their current positions Continental drift encircled the land of Western hemisphere with large oceans isolated it from other continents long before human beings appeared in Africa about 2 million years ago Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa into Europe and Asia Beringia land bridge connects Siberia to Alaska opened a passageway hundreds of miles wide between Eastern and Western hemisphere Paleo Indians 0 15000 BP 0 First immigrants and their descendents for the next millennia speculated that these hunters traveled in groups of no more than 25 people Clovis point distinctively shaped spearhead named for the place in New Mexico where it was rst found Huntergatherer big game hunters 0 Development of agriculture 0 Way of life persisting in North America long after European colonization Archaic lndians hunters 0 Hunt with spears for large game 0 Nets hooks and traps for smaller game 0 Variety of stone tools to prepare food grinding stone to pulverize seeds 0 Most migrated from place to place to harvest plants and hunt animals Great Plains hunters o Developed trapping techniques making it easier to hunt large game 0 Hunters stampeded bison over cliffs and then slaughtered them 0 Bow and arrows replaced spears easier to hunt 0 Horses were extinct but were imported again from the Europeans Great Basin Indians 0 Between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada lived along the shores of marshes and lakes O O O O Hunted deer antelope bison rabbits rodents and snakes Relied on plants as the most important food source Plant food collected and stored easier than meats l protect against food shortage Dietary staple pinon nut California people 0 O O 0 Most densely settled area richness of natural environment Remained hunters and gatherers for hundreds of years Diverse environment variety among native peoples Chumsah emerged in area of what is now Santa Barbara Dietary staple acorns Skeletons showed signs of violent deaths 0 Northwest people O 0000 Along the Paci c Northwest coast Built permanent villages Concentrated on catching whales salmon halibut and other sh Elaborate wood carvings denoted wealth and status Warfare against neighboring tribes l warfare grew out of attempts to defend or gain access to prime shing sites 0 Woodland people 0 0000000 0 6000 BP Deer large supple of food Hides and bones l clothing weapons and tools Gathered plants seeds and nuts Groups of 25150 people Lived near lakes or rivers Life expectancy 18 Added 2 important features Agriculture Pottery Crops sun owers gourds pumpkins tobacco corn 0 Mongolian culture 0 O O O AD 200 Small farming settlements Pit houses dug out rounded pits 15 feet in diameter 12 feet deep erect poles to support roof roof made of branches or dirt Crafted spectacular pottery adorned with human and animal deggn Hohokam culture 0 O O AD 500 Used irrigation canals to plant and harvest crops 2x per year Culture declined AD 1400 unknown reasons Anasazi culture 0 O AD 100 Southern Utah Colorado northern Arizona and New Mexico OO O Pit houses and irrigation Lived in cave dwellings or pueblos Huge stone walled pueblos enough rooms to house everyone in the settlements Usually included kivas used for secret ceremonies restricted to men sought to communicate with the supernatural world Aligned buildings with solar and lunar events suggests they studied the sky carefully they believed supernatural celestial super powers in uenced their lives By AD 1200 pueblos has been abandoned l due to the drought Chiefdom social and political hierarchy Adena people 0 O O O 2500 BP and 2100 BP Built hundreds of burial mounds Central Ohio Accompanied burials with grave goods spear points stone pipes thin sheets of mica crafted into shapes of birds beasts and human hands Hopewell culture 0 O 0 000 O 2100 BP Lasted about 500 years Centered in Ohio and extended throughout drainage of the Ohio amp Mississippi rivers Built larger and better mounds than Adenas Burial was reserved for most important members Most were cremated Culture declined about AD 400 Mississippian culture 0 O O O O O 400 years after Hopewell Mound building culture Emerged in ood plains of major Southeastern river systems about AD 800 1500 Huge mounds platforms on top oor ceremonies and residences of great chiefs l derived from Mexican culture Cahokia major site Skilled farmers supported large population Ample crop of corn Erected woodhenges l long wooden poles set upright in the ground and arranged in huge circles Cahokia and others dwindled by AD 1500 o Algonquian O O O lnhabited Atlantic seaboard Great Lakes region upper Midwest Cool summers and severe winters in Great Lakes area made agricultural impractical Abenaki Penobscot Chippewa l hunting and shing o Canoes l transportation and gathering rice lroquoian 0 Pennsylvania upstate New York uplands of Carolinas amp Georgia 0 3 distinguishing factors from neighboring tribes 1 Success in cultivating corn and other crops l allowed them to build permanent settlements usually barkcovered longhouses up to 100 ft long housing 5 to 10 families 2 Societies adhered to matrilineal rules of decent property of all sorts belonged to women women headed family clans and helped selected chiefs normally men 3 lroquoian confederation includes Seneca Onondaga Mohawk Oneida and Cayuga tribes formed the League of Nations remained powerful well into the 18th century Muskogean people 0 South of Ohio river East of Mississippi river 0 Creek Choctaw Chickasaw Natchez o lnhabited bountiful natural environment provided abundant food from hunting gathering and agriculture The Dalles prime shing site on the Columbia river 0 Border of present day Oregon and Washington 0 Millions of pounds of salmon caught every summer 0 Traded sh Mexica Aztecs referred to themselves as Mexica but Europeans called them Aztecs 0 Coast to coast across central Mexico 0 8 million to 25 million 0 Massive monuments amp Spanish conquerors welldocumented interest in subduing them 0 Began their rise to prominence about 1325 o By 1430 the Mexica succeeded in asserting dominance over former allies and leading own military campaigns in ever widening arc of empire building 0 By 14905 Mexica ruled man empire that covered more land than Spain and Portugal combined amp contained almost 3x as many people Worshipped war god Huitzilopochtli o Believed that human sacri ce fed the sun s craving for blood l kept the sun a ame amp prevented the fatal descent of everlasting darkness and chaos Tribute empire functioned as a military and political system that collected tribute from subject peoples 0 Mexico forced conquered tribes to pay tribute in goods instead of money 0 Redistributed to Mexica as much as 13 of the goods produced by conquered tribes l includes everything from candidates for O human sacri ce to textiles and basic food products corn amp beans and exotic luxury items gold turquoise and rare bird feathers Re ected the fundamental relations of power amp wealth that pervaded the Mexican empire


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