Astronomy 1308 ASTRO 1308
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Holmack on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTRO 1308 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Jorge Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Basic Astronomy in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/02/15
Astronomy 1308 Dr Jorge Lopez Chapter 10 The Sun 0 The Sun39s Mass 1989 x 10quot30 kg 0 Luminosity 3827 x 10quot36 watts o Rotation Period Equatorial 25 days Polar 35 days o The Sun has no solid or liquid region quotsurfacequot 0 Mass light to Earth 832 mins 0 Temperature 5800 K o The Sun emits most of its visible light from a thin layer of gas called the photosphere 0 Composition 715 hydrogen protons 27 helium protons and neutrons 15 other elements 0 Orbital speed 220 kms The Sun39s Atmosphere 0 Photosphere D Chromosphere D Corona D Core 0 The chromosphere is a characterized by spikes of gas called spicules o The photosphere is the visible layer of the Sun Where light is produced 0 Upper 2 layers are transparent to most wavelengths of visible light 0 The higher the temperature the more particles move 101 The photosphere About 400 km 0 Appears darkest towards the edge or limb of the solar because we see regions of different temperatures at different depths 102 The chromosphere During an eclipse the atmosphere is visible as a pinkish strip some 2000 km thick around the edge of the dark moon 0 Granules 1000 km across convection cells in the Sun39s atmosphere Area where gases move up and down in convection motion and disappearing in minutes 103 Temperature 0 Temperature variation with altitude in the Sun39s chromosphere and corona and in the transition region between them The Solar Wind 0 Fast gas million kmhr funnels out of the corona forming quotsolar windquot 0 Sun ejects 1 million of mattersec per second as solar wind goes out 0 Only 9 particles per cmquot3 reach Earth 0 Solar wind is made of H and He but Si Ca can be detected 104 105 106 107 0 Heliosphere is a bubble in space created by solar wind Sunspots Sunspots cooler regions of photosphere due to magnetic activity 0 Sometimes forms in groups 0 Serve as markers for rotation 0 About 10000 km across 0 Last between hours and months The number of Sunspots varies with a period of about 11 years 0 Maximum 2001 0 Minimum 2007 continued through 2010 New spots appears 0 At 30 degrees North or South beginning of cycle 0 At equator later in the cycle The Sun39s magnetic eld Sunspots are linked to intense magnetic eld 0 Evidence Spectral lines split into 3 lines Zeeman Effect 0 Magnetic elds tend to expel charges outside of region No charges D No light 0 Why do sunspots last for a long time Solar moves inside the Sun 0 Motion entangles magnetic elds which produce the sunspots Convection under the photosphere tangles the eld which rises through the photosphere creating sunspots Solar magnetic elds Chromosphere and corona during a solar maximum 0 Plages bright areas precursor of sunspots Filaments dark areas in the corona produced by gas Prominences laments seen edge of observed at the solar limb Flares huge prominences that escape from the Sun Coronal holes dark areas which serve as escape routes for solar gases 0 Coronal mass ejection massive emission of gas Solar Flare 0 At solar maximum there are 1100 ares per year Most last 1 hour 0000 The Sun39s Interior How does the Sun produce its energy 0 Sum is made mostly of protons and neutrons o p and n move collide and bind to 2H 3He and 4He o Gamma rays neutrinos and protons are released The energy of particles heats the interior of the Sun 0 The ProtonProton chain 0 Step 1 1 Two protons collide 2 One proton turns into a neutron emitting a neutrino and a positron 3 The pn system is a 2quotH 4 The positron nds an electron and annihilates producing two gamma rays 5 The neutrino escapes from the Sun 0 Step 2 2quotH collides with a proton producing 3quotHe and releasing a gamma ray 0 Step 3 Two 3quotHe collide and form a 4quotHe and two protons The kinetic energy of the protons contributes to the Sun39s heat 108 The Solar Model 0 How is that the sun does not shrink down to a point 0 Gravity pushes in o Particles and radiation push out o The balance maintains the Sun in equilibrium 0 Core produces gamma rays 0 In the radiative zone photons heat up matter while losing energy 0 ln convective zone mass is moved and produces light that escapes 109 The mvsterv of the missing neutrinos The problem 0 The sun produces 10quot38 neutrinos per second 0 About 100 billion v pass by each cmquot2sec o It is only about 13 of what is expected 0 Where are the missing neutrinos 0 Detection experiments show that there are 3 types of neutrinos Electron neutrinos Muon neutrinos Tau neutrinos And they can switch among themselves that39s why we can only see 13 of the electron neutrinos in the Sun Keyldeas The thin shell of the Sun39s gases we see are from its photosphere the lowest level of Its atmosphere 0 The gases In this lager shine nearly as a blackbody o The photosphere39s ase IS at the top of the convective zone Convection of gas from below the photosphere produces features called granules Above the photosphere is a layer of hotter but less dense gas called the chromosphere o Jets of gas called spicules rise up into the chromosphere along the boundaries of supergranules What The outermost layer of thin gases in the solar atmosphere called the corona extends outward to become the solar wind at great distances from the Sun 0 The gases of the corona are very hot but they have extremely low densities Some surface features on the Sun vary periodically in an 11year cycle 0 The magnetic elds that cause these changes actually vary over a 22 year cycle Sunspots are relatively cool regions produced by local concentrations of the Sun39s magnetic eld protruding through the photosphere A prominence is gas lifted into the Sun39s corona by magnetic elds 0 A solar are is a brief but violent eruption of hot ionized gases from a sunspot group Coronal mass ejections send out large quantities of gas from the Sun The magnetic dynamo model suggests that many transient features of the solar cycle are caused by the effects of differential rotation and convection on the Sun39s magnetic eld The Sun39s energy is produced by the thermonuclear process called hydrogen fusion in which four hydrogen nuclei release energy when they fuse to produce a single helium nucleus Throughout most of the Sun39s interior energy moves outward from the core by radiative diffusion o In the Sun39s outer layers energy is transported to the Sun39s surface by convec on Neutrinos were originally believed to be massless o The electron neutrinos generated and emitted by the Sun were originally detected at a lower rate than is predicted by our model of thermonuclear fusion did you think What of the solar system39s mass is in the Sun 0 About 9985 Does the Sun have a solid and liquid interior like Earth 0 No The Sun in composed of hot gases What is the surface of the Sun like 0 The Sun has no solid or liquid surface What makes the Sun shine o Thermonuclear fusion in the Sun39s core is the source of the Sun s energy Are matter and energy conserved o By themselves they are not always conserved Nuclear fusion converts matter into energy Energy can also be converted into matter
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