Evolution of Human Burial
Evolution of Human Burial ANTH 0538
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pampino on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 0538 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Denis Sharapov in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Archaeologist Looks at Death in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/02/15
Lecture 1 Evolution of Human Burial September 1 2015 SyHabus 0 Contact Information 0 Denis Sharapov 412 315 1811 Desll4pittedu Readings O AllonCW CW 0 Lectureonline 0 Print 39 On cw by 430p 0 All contact through that grades updates etc Group presentations 0 3 to each group O Assigned 0 Each week two groups 0 Starting next week 0 PowerPoint is needed 0 Outline main points 39 Reference grading criteria 0 Incorporate one other scholarly sources 39 Don t look too far in to sources 0 Need to provide summary of speech with sources sited 0 Final grade given on this comments etc 0 Not extensive just main points ref key for prof 0 Citation SAA 0 Guide on CW Exam 0 Lecture material only 0 No readings gr presentations 0 Material 0 The usual style 0 Not cumulative 0 Know cases via lecture I Case details I Species 39 dates 0 Written assignment 0 Just like intro to arch essay 0 Same case and make own chartsgraphs 0 3 5 pages Evo of human burial 0 What is arch O The study of the human past through the recovery and analysis of material remain Outdated definition don t always rely on human remains Common for diff disciplines to come together 0 study on human past combining the themes of time and change Not strictly arch will involve another discipline Lecture 1 Evolution of Human Burial September 1 2015 I Very general 0 Don t rely on human remains only ie climate change 0 Ie climate change 0 Work with botanists to see environment change to get better understanding of living conditions 0 Don t study botany so need to call in peoplel to help 0 Anthropology the study of human kind 0 US anthro I Physical cultural linguistic archeology and sometimes applied anthro 0 Philip Phillips 1955 quotarch is anthropology or it is nothingquot 0 History of arch 0 Early cent only collecting objects that looked coolworth something Not collecting for data 0 Wanting to study Native Am culture in the US I Jefferson and the burial mound on his property 0 LH Morgan and F Boas I Holistic study of human cult 0 Morgan 0 Studied Iroquois particular the Seneca tribe 0 What was the social glue that held the Iroquois nation together 0 Much diff from European politics 0 All tribes were separate but cooped 0 Found that it was kinship that was the glue 0 Kinship as in not relatives but kinship through participation in their clan Clans named after animals Clan of the bear raven etc 0 All clans accepted each other 0 Matriarch society besides being warstates all decisions made by clan mother 0 This study pushed him to study different clans 0 Finding commonalities 0 Found there was a limited number of kinships in the world 0 First to establish the native am origins in Asia based on similarities in his studies Boas 0 Father of cultural anthro 0 Huge contribution to the fight against racism and ethnocentrism 0 Hands on approach to studying cult destroying the armchair approach 0 Why study arch O Philosophical Value 0 Learn about our origins and major pivotal points in the development of human species I quotKnow thy selfquot Greek 0 All individuals but we have many similarities 0 One common ID Homo sapiens Advantage over other animal species learning new traits to help us evolve 0 Understand how individuals and societies behave adapt interact cooperate suffer and prosper over the long term 0 Ie the development of social classes why did it happen I Renaissance social class 0 History repeats itself human nature has not really changed over hundreds of years but something that have happened that may never appear again in our species ie development of diabetes cancer TB etc all evolved over the years 0 Lessons from the past 0 epidemics how our body handles disease how we fought it cause I Ex syllabus quotPounder from Urquot famine how did it happen how did they deal migrate alternative food source development Lecture 1 Evolution of Human Burial September 1 2015 0 What does arch of death study 0 Ancient quotdeath waysquot treatment of the corpse grave goods funerary rites burial monuments etc 0 No fine linesguidelines to burials Ie ancient Russian burial chambers and sacrifices 0 Can learn a ton bc burials are social advances 0 Why study it 0 Social connections I Religious beliefs I Traditions and their development I Worldviews and their interpretation of the world around them I Social structure inequality gender relations political system etc I Value system economic terms I Migration patterns I Health disease diet trauma physical activities I Trade and exchange Evolution of burials Follows closely to social change 0 Definitions 0 Burials deliberate and ritualized interment treatments of the dead Includes inhumation and cremation I Deliberate and ritualized is a secondary feature 0 Inhumation Placement in grave tomb casket niche etch into a designated space vs cremation or exposure 0 Interment Synonymous with burial Earliest burials and why so important 0 Considered the quotoriginal human behavior 0 What distinguishes us from our other ancestorsanimals I Major 3 0 Increase brain size 0 Bipedalism 0 tool use 0 Major watershed between us and animals 0 Video great apeschimp morns death of other anxiety excitement lethargy I Is it morning 0 Once body found many gathered quickly 0 Stayed all together in small space quiet and calm Grouped together never seen before I Learning of death 0 Female hits body and others gathered quickly after to 39investigate39 the body 0 Video elephant morning death tense quiet cover carcass I Have specific quotritualquotactions that they come across own species bones 0 Notation of afterlife respect for the dead 0 Identity 0 Insight into human cognition 0 ID feeds into this also 0 Goods associated with certain individual their culture etc Lower Paleolithic stone age 12 mya200kya 0 Tool use low mid up by tool use 0 Schuhanindex Bodo skull Africa Lecture 1 Evolution of Human Burial September 1 2015 O Homo heidelbergensis O 600 kya O 17 cut marks found on skull 0 Brain extraction 0 First sign of ritualized burial Bilzingsliben Germany 0 H heidlelbergensis 0 400350 kya 0 Skull fragments with cut marks postmortem smashing of skull 0 Add table of species 0 Atapueraca Spain 0 Limestone and gypsum stone very vulnerable to erosion in mountain creating cave sys O 3 sits 0 Gran dolina I 80 bones 6 individual I Homo antecessor Earliest species of genus homo that colonized Europe I 780700 kya 0 Some date to 1mya and older I Butchering marks on human bones I Why ritual Ethnographic ex of cannibalism Yanomamo Guayakie groups 0 Eat dead ancestors for sign of respect 0 A way to keep away predators Sima del elefante I Not covered in lecture Lima de los huesos I Very secluded 13m deep shaft I 32 individuals 0 All ages and sexes All under 40 mostly sub adults 0 Same maturing ages as modern human puberty 0 Dental enamel hypoplasia Caused during stressful periods of time Development of lines seen in adult and children Created due to stressful events in life ie starvation disease being born 0 le periods of starvation etc Formal funerary practice I H Heidelbergensis I 500 kya I Explanations Habitation area Animal den Dump site nope 0 Possibly a graveyarddump site 0 Formal funerary practices 0 No signs of cut marks but same species 0 Demographic age profile 0 Catastrophic v attritional death age profiles 0 Catastrophic step ladder I many die young few die old due to chance of making it to then 0 Attritional negative force picking out specific members I young and the old are seen more in faunal remains O Lima de los huesos fits into neither profile very unique