Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Lecture 7
Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Lecture 7
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ANTH 270 Lecture Seven Bones and Bipedalism 1 Where do humans fit a Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae H0m mpiem 2 Phylogenies a Morphology and molecular data b Examine both modern and fossil forms c Shared traits primitive d Unique traits derived 3 Role of behavior a By examining living forms we can apply behavior to particular morphologies limbs 4 Human Morphology a Many different kinds of cells but same basic structure b Same organelles cytoplasm etc c Tissues i clusters of cells j stratified and simple epithelium c connective tissues internal cohesion cartilage bone iv smooth muscles skeletal muscles cardiac muscles v brain and nervous system d Skeleton i skull y torso upper appendages iv lower appendages v muscular interaction with bones 1 attached via tendons 2 exion and extension 3 adductors and abductors e Physiology i Functioning systems p circulatory respiratory nervous 2 3 4 endocrine 5 digestive 6 reproductive f The brain M393t 339 39 C 539rl5 Sensnry Cumzx Frontal Lobe camptr 3w39FISiElIIQ 1 Ii FF Br quotC 39 rB3 Ir 77quot U 39 W F I M py 7 391 J g H 39 7 l I 7 Iirlg Agquoti i P Vi W lFlFOft3l Lobe I quotJ quot U it lETEa1 T g H TtmporaI Lnhi ff 39 4 A N llnlel M 339 quotquotquot3953 J W39Erniclequot5 area IvI V h1 T gt 11 t I 3153Ee 39 a I cam re hens om S itreaEr391ur39ug hssza neat Eglbtsrcimaulnvzznj and cattle rrnm39lwII Twe Lnr1 f nrru5a i g Interconnectivity i Energy from food 1 Tooth structure muscles chemistry circulatory system digestive system 5 Human Osteology a humans typically have 206 bones ff M errinrhm P K 39 C C C N xwand blg K 1 L ezmscra Vr UB l L i 39 K 39L L V2E Sczzpufa nu V C 1 39 39 p X 0 A Sternum I 39 Jr J Ha lil ll Ribs 393 7 ifT 39N lquot 39 g H quotW 39 7 5395 quotX umerus v PCB C X 39 393 li j I ll 0 A 0 A 39iquot w39 i i L i 1 b Human skull has 30 bones smallest stirrup in ear c Vertebral column irregular bones d Long bones humerus radius radiocarpal joints ulna femur fibula tibia e Flat bones scapula rib bone f Pelvic girdle i lnnominate bones 1 ilium 2 ischium 3 publis K sacrum J coccyX P bis Tschiumrn Sym plhysis PLIlbiS iv 6 Functions of the Skeletal System a Support i Framework of body holding other organs in place I Movement p Attachment sites for skeletal muscles iv Movable joints leverage for movement b Protection i Hard covering of thoracic organs brain spinal cord other soft structures C d 0D Protection as bodily defense against injury lIineral and fat storage i Calcium and phosphorus salts stored in bone tissue Yellow fat stored in bone cavities Blood cell production i Hematopoiesis blood making Red bone marrow is blood forming tissue inside some bones 7 Why an interest in bones 21 P 990 1quot Determining age CEpiphyseal fusion Identifying disease Diet and nutrition Cultural aesthetics Trauma Determining seX llium rquot I Female sacnun k 4 quot isliimn 1 g Occupation h Gender i Race i Population variation vs race We can use known frequencies of certain facial and dental traits to give a probability statement that a person is of a certain culturally constructed race in order to make an identification They are not 100 accurate and they are based on percentages not absolutes and multivariate analysis can yield different trees of relatedness based on the traits chosen 8 Comparative Anatomy a Traits distinguishing humans from other apes i Humans chin little sexual dimorphism larger neocranium smaller face less prognathism smaller neck muscles 11 b Maxilla and Mandible comparison i Humans Parabolic jaw small canines no diastema r Apes Parallel sided jaw enlarged canines diastema gap to allow canines to interlock c Locomotion i Humans bipedalism Apes knuckle walking palm walking brachiating d Skeletal differences associated with locomotive behavior i Foramen magnum apes closer to bottom back of skull r Barrel shaped rib cage vs cone shaped S curve to spine vs straight spine iv Pelvic girdle apes has large tall pelvic blades v Arm leg proportions ape s arms longer than legs vi Femur angle vii Foot 1 calcaneous arch 9 Advantages of Bipedalism a Tool use i By standing early hominins freed hands for tool usage M Supported by Darwin and Washburn Bipedalism predates brain expansion and stone tool usage b Carrying i In sparsely treed savanna carrying food to trees would be advantage pc Supported by Shipman upright scavenger and Lovejoy bipedalismstrategy to improve survival of infants p Lumbar not strong enough yet to carry things far or for very long c Display i Allows for enhancement of threat displays 0O Supported byablonski and Chapman reduces actual violence Only addresses posture not locomotion d Heat Dissipation i Reduces exposure to direct sunlight increases sweat evaporation P Supported by Wheeler based on lab experiments Advantages might not be so evident in mosaic environment e Energy Efficiency i Bipedalism more efficient walking in terms of calorie expenditure Supported by Rodman and McHenry 10 Paleoecology a Ecology of prehistoric times b Same principles of modern ecology i interactions between individuals and environments 0 fossils and enclosing rock c Lack experimental and direct measurements d Distortion and loss of information e Compensated by vast span of time 1quot Goals iv V Reconstruction of ancient environments Infer modes of life for ancient organisms Recognition of ancient groupings that define communities Reconstruction of interactions of organisms with their environments Documentation of large scale change or long term stasis in ecosystems g Time Scales i Succession very short time scale from decades to centuries Replacement longer term changes in community composition thousands of years Evolution millions of years component species evolve substantial fossil evidence to to indicate increasing organism complexity 11 Hadar Ethiopia Part of larger Afar region at northern terminus of Great Rift Valley a b Location of Lucy and Selam Australopithecines 0 P 35 22 MYA Rich amount of fossil and sedimentary data Fine temporal resolution provided by isotopic age of volcanic rock and magnetic polarity transitions f Environmental factors determined by marine core isotopes Fluvial and Lacustrine deposits C4 and C3 fossil pollens and animal fossil remains g Results 1 29 V Region continuously fluctuated between uvial and lacustrine environments with general trend toward increased aridity Corroborated by marine core isotopes and pollens Changes within frequency of forest bovids and arid adapted bovids A oy zremzlv lived through several periods of change Increase in size of A Afarensis may be related to environement ANTH 270 Chapter 10 Vocabulary 1 Morphological Pertaining to the form and structure of organisms 2 Habitual bipedalism Bipedal locomotion as the form of locomotion shown by hominins most of the time 3 Obligate bipedalism Bipedalism as the only form of hominin terrestrial locomotion Since major anatomical changes in the spine pelvis and lower limb are required for bipedal locomotion once hominins adopted this mode of locomotion other forms of locomotion on the ground became impossible 4 Honing complex The shearing of a large upper canine with the first lower premolar with the wear leading to honing of the surfaces of both teeth This anatomical pattern is typical of most Old World anthropoids but is mostly absent in hominins 5 Australopiths A colloquial name referring to a diverse group of Plio Pleistocene African hominins Australopiths are the most abundant and widely distributed of all early hominins and are also the most completely studied 6 Sectoral Adapted for cutting or shearing among primates this term refers to the compressed first lower premolar which functions as a shearing surface with the upper canine 7 Sagittal crest A ridge of bone that runs down the middle of the cranium like a short Mohawk This serves as the attachment for the large temporal muscles indicating strong chewing 8 Endocast A solid impression of the inside of the skull vault often preserving details relating to the size and surface features of the brain 9 PlioPleistocene Pertaining to the Pliocene and first half of the Pleistocene a time range of 5 to 1 MY A For this time period numerous fossil hominins have been found in Africa