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Chapter Two Notes

by: Crystal Boutwell

Chapter Two Notes POLI 1090 - 006

Crystal Boutwell
GPA 3.82
American Government in Multicultural World
Regina M. Moorer

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Chapter Two notes: The Founding and the Constitution Notes from the week of Aug 31.
American Government in Multicultural World
Regina M. Moorer
Class Notes
american, Government, American Government, chapter two, chapter 2, ch 2, ch two, american founding, founding, constitution, american constituiton, articles of confederation, boston tea party, federalists, anti-federalists, Taxes, Congress, judiciary, legi
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Wednesday September 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 1090 - 006 at Auburn University taught by Regina M. Moorer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see American Government in Multicultural World in Political Science at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 09/02/15
American Government in a MultiCultured World Chapter two notes Compiled by Crystal Boutwell The Founding and the Constitution the idea that wherever you are situated geographically you choose people to represent you in government French and Indian war bankrupted Great Britain 9 taxes on the colonies 9 revolution Americans had different financial interests prior to Revolution 5 economic groups New England merChantS Traded with England loyalists wealthier SOUthCI Il plantGI S citizens quotold money born into money Royalists U PP PF Shopkeepersa artisans laborers Generated their money locally not so Small farmers wealthy British trade posed a threat to economics first failed attempt to organize Ben Franklin presented the plan of the union It was shot down but would become the basis for the independent country Early Tax Revolts of 1764 enforced a previous tax on molasses of 1765 Tipping point for colonies Required printed materials to have a stamp on them More aggressive than Sugar Act Rebellion to boycott both acts These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class Colonists were so strongly against the taxes because they had representation in Parliament to vote foragainst such taxation The Boston Tea Party East India Trade Company had monopoly on importing tea and sought to bypass the merchants by selling it directly to the colonists This took away the ability of the colonist merchants to sell their tea and make a profit Goal was to provoke a government clampdown Closed the port of Boston and shut down the Massachusetts government Troops overseeing the shutdown were quartered in the colonists homes The Declaration of Independence 1776 1 document stating that certain rights were inalienable cannot be taken away document explaining that since the King had violated these rights overstepped home rule the colonists had the right to separate Addressed multiple audiences king colonists French etc The Articles of Confederation 17771789 Created a confederation of 13 states government with powerful state powers Weak central government no president only a legislature Impractical government giving each state one vote regardless of population and requiring all 13 to make amendments Prevented colonies from creating treaties lacked an army or navy no taxing authority First attempt as a governing document Confederation vs Federation States working with but under federal government s control Shav s Rebellion 1787 These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class Drew attention to the aws of the Articles of Confederation If farmers participated in the American Revolution their debts would be excusedtheir lands would not be taxes This deal was went back on They used crops to pay debts bartering but government wanted them to pay money Goal to prevent the court from repossessing debt ridden lands held by poor farmers in Western Massachusetts Highlighted lack of power to tax and national army Focal point for those who would draft a new constitution Constitutional Convention 1787 Interests the financial interests of the wealthy were better protected under the new constitution Principles the new constitution embodied leading political theories of the time regarding liberty equality and democracy supported a strong central government with more power over states states rights campaign 2 chambers Upper senate 100 members gtl Lower House of Representatives 435 members The Great Compromise How to form the legislature states would have delegates proportionate to population or wealth 9 basis of House equal representation 9 basis of Senate equal representative in Senate and proportional in House gt There will always be 435 members in the House The census will determine if a state will lose or gain representation in the House The issue of Slavery and Population These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class Slaves couldn t vote considered property Southern states wanted their count for representation Only 3 out of every 5 would be counted Issues of slavery 1 North did not require slavery as much as South 2 North wanted to end importation of slaves 3 Last slave ship 1856 docked in Mobile Al 4 Southern states refused to agree to a new government if the Northerners wouldn t give in Constitutional Goals A central government strong enough to promote commerce and protect property against infringement by the states the government can take your property Prevent excessive democracy protect the rights of the minority while still being majority ruled Wanted bills to be considered slow and deliberately Emphasize ideas that would generate public support Restrain the federal government from imposing on liberties and property rights The Legislative Branch Most powerful branch of new government Creates laws Two chambers House and Senate 0 Each has its own different powers 0 Each is accountable to a different constituency 0 Different term length 2 yrs House 6 yrs Senate 0 Share some powers with the other branches Power and Consent The new federal government was far more powerful than the old The question was how to build public trust 0 New powers given mostly to Congress These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class 0 New powers were expressly written but exible enough to adapt and respond to public will Executive Branch Purpose Offset the potential power of Congress and acts with speed during time of crises Unifying figure to serve as the head of state Can veto laws Chief diplomat The Judicial Branch The goal was to nationalize government power through the court that was supreme over all others and that could stand up to the other branches Rulings set precedence for how laws are madedetermined Hamilton thought it would ve been the weakest branch of government National Unity and Power The constitution had to allow states enough freedom to pursue their own policies and unify the nation enough to have a common economy reserve powers States were given tremendous leeway but were asked to respect contracts made in the states Ex driver s license equal protection clause the constitution stands supreme over state laws Amending the Constitution The Articles of Confederation were extremely difficult to amend required unanimous vote New constitution requires supermaj orities but not unanimity o It remains difficult and rare to amend but more possible than the Articles would have allowed These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class Congress approves presidential nominations and controls the budget it can pass laws over the president39s veto and can impeach the president and remove him or her from office I The president can veto congressional legislation JUDICIAL BRANCH The Courts Supreme Court courts of appeal district courts These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class AMENDMENT AMENDMENT PROPGSAL RATIFICATION NEW Amendment proposed E N byal l L39J s ZS39Elm39 quot To CQl gllTUTJQN m i v IN 039 J uquotquot39l fl 391 Amendmont proposed by a vote of twothirds of both houses of Congress i w I We Amendment pcoposed by national convention requested by two thirds of the States Amendment proposed by national convention requested by twothirds of the States THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION Limiting the National Government s Power Separation of powers with checks and balances Dividing constituencies to make office holders accountable to different elements of the public states work with but under the federal government guidelines what the government cannot do and outlines personal liberties Ratification was very controversial Federalists o Favored a stronger central government 0 Federal control over the economy 0 Clear property rights 0 Government by elites wealthy AntiFederalists o Favored the balance of power being with states These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class 0 Clearly articulated rights not just property 0 Government by leaders who shared the economic interests of the people Federalists vs Antifederalists Representation Antifederalists wanted representatives who shared the same financial interests and backgrounds as they represented Federalists thought elections would keep legislators concerned for their constituent s interests Tyranny The antifederalists were concerned government would be controlled by the wealthy elite They feared tyranny of minority over majority The federalists feared the mass electorate would team up against the wealthy elite who would always be in the minority They feared tyranny of the unsophisticated majority The US Constitution is higher law It establishes a framework within which ordinary laws are made The US constitution is a living document and hence our understanding of it changes over time even without amendment These definitions can be found in the textbook assigned to this class These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class


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