J201 Media and Society
J201 Media and Society
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Date Created: 05/07/14
Chapter 11 Advertising and Commercial Culture Terms Space brokers individuals who purchased space in newspapers and then sold it to various merchants Subliminal advertising tactic Where TV ads supposedly used hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register only in viewers subconscious minds fooling them into buying products they don t need Mega agencies large firms that are formed from the merging of several individual agencies and that maintain vvorldvvide regional offices Boutique agencies smaller companies that devote their talents to just a handful of select clients Market research assess consumers behaviors and attitudes regarding particular products long before the agency develops any ads Demographics earliest type of market research that mainly documented audience members age gender occupation ethnicity education and income and then looked for patterns between these characteristics and consumers purchasing choices Psychographics a research approach that attempts to categorize consumers according to their attitudes beliefs interests and motivations Focus groups small group interview technique in which a moderator leads a discussion about a product or an issue usually with six to twelve participants Values and Lifestyles VALS a strategy that uses questionnaires to divide respondents into eight types thinkers innovators achievers strivers survivors believers makers eXperiences associated with certain behaviors and preferences of interest to clients Storyboard a roughly drawn comic strip version showing each scene in the potential ad Viral marketing short videos or other forms of content that they hope will swiftly capture an ever widening circle of attention as users share the content with friends online or by word of mouth Media buyers people who choose and purchase the types of media that are best suited to carry a client s ads and reach the targeted audience Saturation advertising repetitive advertising by which a variety of media is combined with ads aimed at target audiences Miller Lite beer campaign J Account executives responsible for bringing in new business Account reviews assess an existing ad agency s campaign or inviting several new agencies to submit new campaign strategies Spam unsolicited email ads Ad impressions how often ads are seen Click throughs how often users land briefly on a site before clicking through to the next site QR Quick response codes square bar codes that are easily scanable by mobile phone cameras and link to videos and Web pages Famous person testimonial a product is endorsed by a vvell knovvn person Plain folks pitch a product is associated with simplicity Snob appeal an ad attempts to persuade consumers that using a product Will maintain or elevate their social status Bandwagon effect ad claims that everyone is using a particular product Hidden fear appeal a campaign plays on consumers sense of insecurity Irritation advertising an ad creates product name recognition by being annoying or obnoxious Association principle technique that many campaigns use Where the agency associates a product with a positive cultural value or image even if that value or image has little connection to the product 0 Product placement strategically placing ads or buying space in moviesTV shows comic books and video games so they appear as part of a story s set environment 0 Commercial speech defined as any print or broadcast expression for which a fee is charged to organizations and individuals buying time or space in the mass media 0 Political advertising use of ad techniques to promote a candidate image and persuade the public to adopt a particular vievvpoint Introduction 0 Advertising shows up in most media the internet TV radio books newspapers magazines movies serves as economic glue holding industries together Without consumer advertisements most media businesses would cease to function in their present forms 0 We increasingly find ways to avoid ads using DVRs to zip through them and blocking pop ups 0 Consumer advertising shape product images and hrand name identities What is advertising Advertising is a set of messages that promotes products and services to audiences now it is more targeted Strange Red Cow shows classified ads in past Where do we see ads 0 Phones TV magazines newspapers internet billboards 0 We see a lot more ads now than before Advertising in the Digital Age Video Advertisers have to Work hard to get ads noticed Young people are good at ignoring ads Ads can be left leaving internet page forwarding through commercials voluntary media Advertisers need to be entertainers not just sellers Internet has changed the Way people think social media short attention span scattered attention span We can t lead a life without advertisements Wearing clothes We are Walking billboards How is advertising changing to adapt to the contemporary media landscape 0 Pop ups Criticisms 0 Drives consumerism Advertising and Activism 0 Olympics Advertising Olympic partners Coca cola Atos Dow GE McDonalds Omega Panasonic P 8 G SamsungVisa GoVernment in Russia came out With law that said homosexual propaganda Was illegal how do advertisers respond Coca Cola Ad mixed Wit Sochi Olympics Footage Song that promotes harmony with footage of protesters shoWed controVersy Coca Cola tweeted original ad Cheers to Sochi McDonalds Ad that was meant to cheer on an athlete or a team Was imitated hijacked by a Cheers to Sochi hash tag McDonalds came out With a campaign statement Chobani Ad yogurt with colored bands CheVrolet featuring gay families History of American Advertising Started with Industrial Revolution merchants wanted to advertise in newspapers and magazines first national ads introduced notion that it was important for sellers to differentiate their products from competing goods fueled growth of consumer culture critics decried advertising s power to seemingly dictate values and create needs in people triggered formation of watchdog organizations and careful consumers First American advertising agents were newspaper space brokers the first full service modern ad agency NW Ayer instead of working for newspapers worked for companies collected fee from clients for each ad and 15 commission 3 The first modern ad agencies worked mainly for companies that manufactured consumer products not for the newspaper As a result of manufacturers using newspaper stories and ads to create brand names consumers began demanding specific products and retail stores started stocking desired brands ushering in product differentiation Patent medicine makers embraced advertising as a way to differentiate their products and mislead consumers sparking cynicism and the development of industry codes congress passed the Federal Food and Drugs Act in 1906 Department stores began advertising heavily in newspapers and magazines luring people away from small local stores 20 ad space in the early 1890s was devoted to department stores sold huge volumes of goods and providing little individualized service they saved Advertising transformed American society creating new markets shaping values good wife made people hungry for technological advances and influencing the rising consumer culture Catalyzed the first watchdog organizations such as Better Business Bureau kept tabs on deceptive advertising and FTC further helped monitor advertising abuses and War Advertising Council Ad Council voluntary group of ad agencies and advertisers that began organizing war bond sales blood donor drives and rationing today chooses dozen causes and produces Public Service Announcements aimed at combating social problems Industry faced criticism again for use of subliminal advertising and National association of Broadcasters banned use of anything resembling a subliminal type ad Evolution of US Advertising 0 Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s visual design played a more prominent role in advertising Agencies developed teams of writers an visual artists thus granting equal status to images and Words in the creative process today 3D animation and high quality audio are prominent Sparked growth of new types of advertising agencies large global firms serving broad range of clients and small companies Working for select groups mega agencies and boutique agencies Most ad agencies have similar organizational structures consisting of account planning departments that develops an effective advertising strategy by combining the views of the client creative team and consumers Where planners coordinate market research to assess consumer behaviors and attitudes by studying demographics and psychographics often relying on focus groups and conducting VALS research creative development where Writers and artists develop storyboards for television viral marketing for digital media and for radio they develop Working script ideas for narrator s voice and background sound effects media buying staffed by media buyers planners and engaging in repetitive saturation advertising client companies usually pay an ad agency a commission fee for Work or incentive clauses higher fee if sales reach a specific target and lower fee if sales fall short of target and account management staffed with account executives and are vulnerable to account revievvs Internet opened door for new giants such as Google to dominate the online advertising industry Growth of internet in the 1990s has changed the advertising industry New forms of internet advertising include pop up ads spam banner ads multimedia ads 30 second video ads classified adds Internet ad companies pose a threat to traditional Paid search advertising dominates GoogleYahoo and Bing morphed into online advertising companies selling sponsored links associated with search terms and distributing ads to affiliated Web pages targets audiences and specialized ads How online ads work generally placed by advertising agencies and served to hundreds of client sites by the agencies computers ad agencies can track ad impressions and click throughs and develop consumer profiles they can gather information about users through cookies and online surveys mobile phones and tablets have provided a third screen in addition to TV and personal computers for online advertisers can tailor ads to specific geographic location Google s mobile technologies Smartphone app enables users to take a photo of an object and have Google return related search results voice search Mobile ad technologies include QR codes Project Glass augmented reality technology into eyeglasses that have small cameras that see what we see then layer information and advertising into small screens allow users to send email via dictation take pictures and upload them and get directions Advertising creates a display of likes dislikes locations and other personal information advertisers use info to target ads Social media ads are virtually no cost Ads are still also bought traditionally in paid advertisements if you like a product on social media your friends may view knowing that you liked it Web advertising s growing power leading industries expanded in advertising market by acquiring smaller Internet advertising agencies micro targeted advertising based on the data mining of browsing or buying history J Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising 0 Ad agencies use a number of persuasive strategies such as famous person testimonial plain folllts pitch snob appeal bandwagon effect hidden fear appeal irritation advertising 0 Advertisers also draw on the association principle that is a technique to link products with stereotyped caricatures of targeted consumer groups claim products as real or C 9 CC 9 natural or green 0 Others tell stories or narratives that convey a culture s deepest values and social norms like sitcoms 0 Some focus on product placement Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising 0 Advertisements consist of commercial speech 0 Question of whether advertisers are fully protected by the First Amendment remains controversial 0 Concerns exist over the impact of advertising on children teens and people susceptible eating disorders smoking alcoholism or inappropriate prescription drug use which has led to the creation of nonprofit watchdog and advocacy organizations such as Commercial Alert worked to limit excessive commercialism in society has challenged specific marketing tactics that allow corporations to intrude into civic life aimed to strengthen noncommercial culture and limit amount of corporate influence on publicly elected government officials and organizations and the American Legacy Foundation uses innovative advertising of their own to offset the effects of ads for dangerous products Action for Children s Television ACT worked to limit ads aimed at children Children s Television Act of 1990 mandated that networks provide some educational and informal children s programming has been difficult to enforce and has done little to restrict advertising aimed at kids Critics have complained about advertising encroaching in schools Ads trigger anorexia and overeating due to ultrathin models and media advertising showing corn syrup laden soft drinks fast food junk food and processed food FTC played investigative role in substantiating the claims of various advertisers can require ads K to change remove from circulation impose monetary civil penalties Advertising s Impact on Our Democratic Society Abilit to roduce not roducts but actual consumers became central Y P P economic support system for American mass media 1ndustr1es Advertising has helped fuel the economy While also creating a consumer society with divisions between those who can afford to buy and those who cannot Advertising s ubiquity intrudes privacy Has raised concerns about the impact of a handful of large media conglomerates controlling commercial speech Political advertising makes us question Whether or not We re getting unbiased information because third party candidates often can t pay for TV spots there s attack ads 30 second spot doesn t inform enough many people don t vote anymore free speech isn t free Despite these issues Without advertising many mass media industries Would not survive Given advertising s pervasiveness it s important for the public to be critical consumers of advertising Quiz 1What type of advertising did the industry get criticism for Answer 1 Industry faced criticism again for use of subliminal advertising and National association of Broadcasters banned use of anything resembling a sub1irnina1 type ad 2 Describe ad agencies organizational structures Answer 2 Most ad agencies have similar organizational structures consisting of account planning departments that develops an effective advertising strategy by combining the views of the client creative team and consumers vvhere planners coordinate market research to assess consumer behaviors and attitudes by studying demographics and psychographics often relying on focus groups and conducting VALS research creative development where Writers and artists develop storyboards for television viral marketing for digital media and for radio they develop Working script ideas for narrator s voice and background sound effects media buying staffed by media buyers planners and engaging in repetitive saturation advertising client companies usually pay an ad agency a commission fee for Work or incentive clauses higher fee if sales reach a specific target and lower fee if sales fall short of target and account management staffed with account executives and are vulnerable to account revievvs 3 What mobile technologies does Google have Answer 3 Google s mobile technologies smart phone app enables users to take a photo of an object and have Google return related search results Voice search
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