Week 1 & 2 Notes
Week 1 & 2 Notes NTRI 2000-001
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Richards on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-001 at Auburn University taught by Ramesh Jeganathan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see nutrition and health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 09/03/15
What is Nutrition Nutrition is the science of food the nutrients and the substances therein their action interaction and balance in relation to health and disease and the process by which the organism ingests absorbs transports utilizes and excretes food substances Why study nutrition poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease hypertension diabetes and some forms of cancer together these account for nearly twothirds of all deaths in North America Obesity second leading cause of preventable death in America surgery to treat obesity 1240000 dollars Obesity has been directly linked with mortality and many chronic ailments obese people have more health risks compared to normal What is Nutrients are nourishing substances that come from food provide energy provide building blocks vital for growth and maintenance The 6 Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates sugar starch amp fiber Lipids fats amp oils Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water 97915905 Essential Nutrients nutrients the body cannot make for itself and must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies Characteristics of an Essential Nutrient 1 Omission leads to decline 2 Regain normal function when restored to the diet 3 Has specific biological function vitamin C necessary for Collagen synthesis PellegraNiacinB3 deficiency causes dementia dry skin Carbohydrates composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen Major source of calories 4 kcalgm Simple Carbs monosaccharides glucose Disaccharide Fructose Glucose Sucrose Complex Carbs Polysaccharides starch Dietary fiber hemicelluloses pectins gums mucilages cellulose and lignin Lipids composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen energy yielding fats and oils 9 kcalgm Triglycerides major storage form of energy glycerol and fatty acids fats and oils get more calories from fats than you do from carbs Saturated Fatty Acids butter bad for you do not contain carboncarbon double bonds raises blood cholesterol clogged arteries cardiovasculardiseases Unsaturated Fatty Acids corn oils contain one or more carboncarbon double bonds Proteins composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen a part of muscle blood enzymes immune factors body cells Essential amino acids nonessential amino acids Energy yielding 4 kcalgm Magic Numbers 494 carbsfatsproteins 494 kcalsg sure question on every exam main energy sources for body functions Alcohol 7 kcalg alot of calories have to watch if you want to lose weight but has no required function Micronutrients Vitamins composed of various elements function enable chemical reactions 13 vitamins fat soluble ADEK water soluble B and C vitamins destroyed by cooking excreted easily yield no energy Vitamin D deficiency bowed legs of rickets children from a village in Bangladesh Minerals inorganic substances no carbon Function in cellular processes nervous system water balance structural systems not destroyed during cooking 16 or more essential minerals major minerals amp Trace minerals less than 100 mg Yield no energy Cretinism stunting of fetal growth and mental development as a result of low iodide in maternal diet Goiter thyroid gland enlarges due to low intake of iodide Water H20 Composed of hydrogen oxygen majority of our body weight 60 o Found in fruits and vegetables Yields no energy Recommended intake 913 cupsday Functions Solvent lubricant medium for transport chemical processes and temperature regulator Phytochemicals Chemicals found in plants that may provide significant health benefits reduced risk of cancer lowered cardiovascular risk examples Resveratrol curcumin from turmeric What is a Calorie measurement of energy the amount of energy that takes to raise the temperature of 1000 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius Sample Calculation of Nutrition Label sam consumes 290 grams of carbs 60 g of fat 70 g of protein total he consumed 1980 kcal 290 x 4 60 x 9 70 x 4 1980 Determine the percentage of each nutrient of Kcal as carbs 290 x 4 1980 059 x 100 59 o of Kcal as Fat 60 x 9 1980027 x 100 270 of Kcal as Protein 70 x 4 H980 014 x 100 14 Healthy People 2020 Main Objective promote healthy lifestyle amp reduce preventable deaths and diseases reduce obesity in adults and children increase intake of fruits vegetables and whole grains producing lower intake of fat saturated fats and sodium salt in moderation alcohol in moderation Why Am I So Hungry Hunger physical biological drive Internal Appetite Psychological drive external Satiety temporary halt of desire to eat Satiety regulated by the hypothalamus feeding center satiety center tells you that you are full factors regulating satiety meal size and composition bulky meals promote satiety Macronutrients in the blood Hormones Hormones that INCREASE hunger Ghrelin Neuropeptide Y NPY Endorphins Hormones that cause SATIETY Leptin tells brain you are full Serotonin and Cholecystokinin CCK Summary essential nutrients diet chronic diseases major classes of nutrients healthy people 2020 calories hunger satiety Chapter 2 Guidelines for Designing a Healthy Diet Foundations of a Healthy Food Plan Variety Balance and Moderation No exclusively good foods or bad foods Philosophy That Works 12 fruits and vegetables 14 grains 14 protein dairy Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food Phytochemicals Chemicals found in plants that may provide significant health benefits reduced risk of cancer lowered cardiovascular risk examples resveratrol lycopene lutein anthocyanins EGCG curcumin Func onalFoods Nutrient Density to asses nutritional quality of particular food Nutrient Dense Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with amount of calories it provides nutrient dense if a food provides large number of nutrients for a relatively small amount of calories Energy Density Comparison of calorie content with weight of food a food that is rich in calories but weighs relatively little is considered energy dense Example nuts cookies fried foods mayonnaise butter Desirable Nutritional Health lntake meets body s needs Body has a small surplus in times of increased need Obtained by eating a variety of foods Undernutrition Intake is below body s needs Surpluses are depleted Health declines Metabolic processes slow or stop Subclinical deficiency Clinical symptoms painless hair pluckability skin breakdown delayed wound healing osteopoerosis Overnutrition intake exceeds body s needs short term few symptoms Long term serious conditions obesity Abuse of supplements How to Measure Nutritional State Anthropometric assessment height weight waist circumference skin fold thickness Biochemical assessment blood amp urine assays enzyme activities glucose cholesterol etc Clinical assessment appearance of skin eyes tongue sense of touch ability to walk Dietary assessment usual intake or record of foods consumed Environmental assessment living conditions education level and the ability of the person to purchase food transport and cook foods needed to maintain heath Limitations of Nutritional Assessment Delayed symptoms and signs heart attack osteoporosis Symptoms due to different causes Pediatric disease with geriatric consequences Recommendations for Healthy Eating Choose MyPlate choosemyplategov 1 Balancing calories enjoy your food but eat less avoid oversized portions 2 Foods to increase eat more nutrientdense foods make half your plate fruits and vegetables make at least half your grains whole grains switch to fatfree or lowfat 1 milk 3 Food to reduce limit foods high in sodium added sugars and refined grains compare sodium in foods like soup bread and frozen meals and choose the foods with lower numbers Drink water instead of sugary drinks get active 10 minutes 3 times a day Nutrient Recommendations Dietary Reference lntake DRl Ongoing and collaborative effort Health Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine US Recommended intake levels for vitamins minerals and macronutrients RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance for particular age groups recommended amount of nutrient based on meeting the needs of nearly all individuals in a particular age and gender group Als Adequate Intake EERs Estimated Energy Requirement Calorie ULs Upper Level eating varied dietusing balanced multivitamin in ok Problem use many fortified food or excessive doses of individual vitaminsminerals Vitamin A 3000 ugd Daily Values Generic standard used on food labels ages 4 through adulthood Based on 2000 calorie diet Allow for comparison Scientific Research Laboratory animal experiments Human studies case control studies doubleblind studies Peer Review Followup studies Proteins are macronutrients are very satiating compared to fat and sugar and thus this diet leads to lower caloric intake Dietinduced thermogenesis high protein diets require a lot of energy to process very controversial High proteinlow carbohydrate diets are unappetizing in the early stages of this diet individuals lose a lot of water weight because liver glycogen is used up and not replenished this diet forces the body to mobilize adipose TG and oxidize fatty acids Food Labels What s on the Food Label Product name Manufacturer s name and address Uniform serving size Amount in the package Ingredients in descending order by weight Nutrient components What Food Requires a Label for fresh food like fruits vegetables etc you do not need a label Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products Health claims Fresh fruit vegetables raw single ingredient meal poultry fish are voluntary What is NOT Required on a Label Daily Value for protein for foods intended for 4 yrs or older Protein deficiency is rare Procedure to determine protein quality is expensive Extra Credit 2 points added to total grade What s on the Food Label due Thursday sept 3 Staplepaste a food label on a sheet of paper do not use paper clips Provide the following information Product name Manufacturer s name Uniform serving size Amount in the package What percent of Calories come from Total Fat Comparative and Absolute Nutrient Claims Sugar Free less than 05 g per serving Calories Free fewer than 5 Cserving Low 40 Cserving Fiber High 5 gm or more Good source 2549 g Fat Free less than 05 g perserving Low 3g or less per serving Reduced 25 less per serving than reference food Cholesterol Free less than 2 mg per serving Low 20mg or less per serving Reduced 25 less per serving than reference food MUST KNOW ALL OF THESE FOR TEST Sodium Free less than 5 mg per serving Low 140 mg or less per serving Reduced 25 less per serving than reference food Nutrient Claims FortifiedEnriched added vitaminsminerals Healthy low fat sat fat cholesterol sodium Light lite 13rd lower calories low sodium Diet artificially sweetened Good source at least 10 DV Organic no chemical fertilizers pesticides Natural no food coloring or flavoring agent Health Claims Allowed on Food Labels For the health claim good source of fiber protein vitamin A C calcium or iron Less than 13 g of fat 4 g of sat fat 60 mg of cholesterol Osteoporosis Some cancer Cardiovasculardisease Hypertension sodium calcium Neural tube defects Tooth decay Use of may or may not Good Nutrition Advice Physicians Registered Dietitian wwweatrightorg Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA 1994 Classified vitamins minerals amino acids and herbal remedies as foods Can be marketed in US without FDA approval if Reasonably safe Product must be labeled as a dietary supplement Look for seal USP US Pharmacopeia on a lot of vitamins Ephedra Ephedra is a stimulant that constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure thermogenic and heart rate Steve Bechler a pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles died of complications from heatstroke following a spring training workout on February 17 2003 Evaluating Claims page links of websites Poor Nutrition Advice 39 Quick fix Warnings of danger Sounds too good to be true Simplistic conclusions Recommendations based on single study Dramatic statements Lists good and bad foods Selling a product Studies published without peer review Summary PhytochemicalsFunctional Foods Nutrient Density Energy Density Nutritional State desirable under and over nutrition Nutritional State Measurement Anthropometric Biochemical Clinical Dietary and Environmental Assessment Recommendation for Healthy Eating Myplate Food labels Dietary Supplements