ANT 304 - Week 2
ANT 304 - Week 2 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
ANT 304 Introduction to Archaeological Studies Week 2 Monday August 31 2015 Romanticized form is Indiana jones 0 Such as seen as treasure hunters Some archaeologists search is foreign places others in local neighborhoods 0 Stories show the business of the unexplained of the lost and forgotten all of that has really become BIG business 0 Real world bears little resemblance to those stories Somehow archaeology is also the acquisition of objects but it is not Finds are a nite resource there s only so many of them 0 Every object whether you can buy it or nd is part of past human behavior 0 Need the context in order to reconstruct that behavior Artifacts anything that has been modi ed by humans 0 Prehistoric archaeology the time before written records 0 Different kinds of archaeologists 0 Classical those that work with the Greeks and the Romans classic statuary temples etc Use the same archaeologist methods 0 Historical study sites cultures that are within the historic pe od Medieval Europe colonial Williamsburg Provide information to supplement the archives Example 0 Underwater mostly held together with historical archaeologists Archaeologists specialize with certain artifacts 0 Stone tools metal etc 0 Human prehistory o In the 17th century Archbishop Ussher calculated that the world was created in 4004 BC Meaning there was about 6000 years for all of human existence to occur 0 By 19005 agreed that humans had traveled by Beringia B dge But still argued how they got all the way to south America 0 Stone tools found near old bones became clear native Americans had been here for a very long time Wednesday September 2 2015 o In 18th century difficult to understand and explain all the societies around the world 0 ln 18705 British anthropologist named Edward Tylor attempted to explainorganize all of humanity o Organized societies into three stages of development or achievement 0 Humanity progressed through these stages 0 Even if someone wanted to accept that going through this stages was natural or that some could regress there are important questions How does one move from one stage to another Why does it happen Are there negatives What s to keep you from going back How do societies move from simple towns to complex cities Tylor s three stages of development 0 Savagery Considered that the earliest of societies were hunter gatherers Put in the same category as modern huntergatherers o Barbarism Early farmers pasture workers Food is produced in some form A step or two behind what Tylor saw as his society 0 Civilization The most advanced stage 0 Neolithic revolution 0 All of the sudden people went from huntergatherers to food producers 0 We know that it wasn t really a revolution it was a process that came about over thousands of years 0 First archaeological sites 0 Begin with the rst concentrations of stone tools and broken bones found 0 Anthropology discipline for studying humanity in its widest possible sense 0 Cultural work with contemporary societies Huntergatherers villages remote place in the world corporate headquarters 0 Physical study the physical being Essentially do human biology look at humans in a biological sense 0 Archaeologist anthropological archaeologist Work with material remains of the past material record Usually do not work with documents nor people they can talk to Have to determine human behavior from material remain 0 These three are super important Archaeology connection to Anthropology o By way of a couple of early anthropologists o Bandolier was one don t need to memorize o Cushing spent 5 or 6 years living with Zuni in Southwest Dressed and spoke like them Saw a longlived society in architecture artifacts life ways etc His statement archaeology was like cultural anthropology carried back to prehistoric times 0 Ultimately they have the same goal to study human society NOT objects 0 Three goals of archaeology 0 To study culture history 0 Reconstruction of ancient life ways 0 Investigate the way in which human cultures change in prehistory how and why 0 Culture how we learn appropriate behavior 0 We are not born knowing 0 19505 0 Archaeologists tried to explain that the changes that took place through time were because of the interactions with the ecological factors 0 Environment not only factored into food supplies it also helped decide where people would live settlements 0 Local environment becomes a signi cant backdrop to these cultures 0 19605 0 Another signi cant change in methods and theoretical approaches 0 Whole new generation concerning arcaheology how it s done and how it s approached
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