Week 1 notes - chapters 1-2 CJ 220
Week 1 notes - chapters 1-2 CJ 220 CJ 220
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Edmund Sexton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 351 views. For similar materials see Law Enforcement in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
CJ 220 Law Enforcement Professor Edmund Sexton WEEK 1 NOTES CHAPTER 1 History from English Origins to the United States English and Colonial Officers of the Law 0 Sheriff 0 Derived from shire reeve meaning county and agent of the king Job was to maintain law and order king s steward charged as being lazy and were later forbidden to act as justices declined in power 0 more popular in America 0 Constable 0 Alone pursued felons O Collected taxes supervised highways and served as a magistrate 0 Later limited to making arrests only with warrants issued by justice of O O O 0 peace 0 In 1856 parliament discarded the office 0 No pay 0 Coroner O Oversight of the interests of the crown conducted preliminary hearings determined cause of death and party responsible for it 0 At first elected for life 0 In the US limited to only determining cause of death 0 Justice of the Peace 0 Wealthy landholders 0 Issued warrants 0 buy your way into office Policing in Colonial America 0 Crime was low during seventeenth and eighteenth century America 0 The county sheriff was the most important law enforcement official 0 After the American Revolution in 1783 crime increased and it was evident that America needed a better system of policing as the English did earlier Legacies to Policing 0 1 Local policing 0 2 Republicanism power can be divided and it relied on local interests to promote the general welfare 0 3 Theory of crime prevention led to the emergence of modern police agencies 0 Henry Fielding was one of England s most acclaimed theorists in crime and punishment He argued that the English penal code needed to be more severe death penalty for a lot of different offenses Police Reform in England 0 Two trends brought changes urbanization and industrialization 0 A new policing system was much needed 0 Robert Peel introduced principles of policing arguing that the police should be military organized and under the governent s control 0 Crime prevention is as important as crime suppression Policing in the United States 0 Three eras of policing 1 Political Era a Politics and law b Broad social services c Decentralized d Intimate e Foot patrol f Citizen and political satisfaction 2 Reform Era a Law and professionalism b Crime control c Centralized and classical d Remote e Preventive patrol and rapid response 3 Community Era a Community support law and professionalism Broad provision of services Decentralized using task forces and matrices Foot patrol problem solving Public relations Quality of life and citizens weep CHAPTER 2 Preparing for the Street Recruiting 0 Extremely important part of hiring However there are some problems 0 Gender bias 0 Sexual harassment Testing Hurdle Process New recruits must complete this process Written Examinations 0 General knowledge and psychological test 0 Reading skills 0 Best means a police agency can use Physical Agility 0 Applicants must get to the problem climbing running jumping resolve the problem fight wrestle and remove the problem Personal Interview 0 To assess aspects of the applicant such as appearance communication reason and poise Character Investigation 0 Similar to a background check 0 Involves talking to friends family and previous employers Polygraph Exam 0 Not used as much 0 Used to detect honesty Medical Exam and Drug Screening 0 To make sure officers are in peak condition Assessment Center 0 Includes interviews tests exercises discussions and role playing 0 More difficult logistically but well worth it Academy Training States and jurisdictions have their own training requirements Each state has commission on Peach Officers Standards and Training POST Inservice training 0 Provided by employing agency Academy training 0 New identity and system of discipline Working personality 0 Demeanor swagger Suspicion Sixth Sense Officers should be able to identify suspicion Sense when something is wrong Postacademy Field Training 0 Field Training Officer Program ETC 0 Assignment to a veteran officer for field instruction 0 Four phases 1 Introductory phase 2 Training phase 3 Evaluation phase 4 Final phase 0 Police Training Officer Program PTO O Seeks to take the traditional FTO program to higher levels that embrace new officers 0 New Technology 0 Automated Daily Observation Report and Evaluation ADORE 39 Computerized notes while supervising I Reduces paperwork O Pursuit simulation 0 Simulates a pursuit of buses trucks cars skateboarders etc What makes a good cop 0 Enthusiasm 0 Good communications skills Good judgment Sense of humor Creativity Selfmotivation 0 Knowing the job and system 0 Ego 0 Courage 0 Discretion 0 Tenacity Thirst for knowledge Roles Functions and Styles of Policing 0 Four basic policing functions 1 Enforcing the law 2 Performing services 3 Preventing crime 4 Protecting the innocent 0 Three policing styles 1 Watchman style 2 Legalistic style 3 Service style Women and Minorities 0 Women police officers has increased over the years 0 Advantages to having women in service 0 O O O 0 Female officers are proven to be as competent as male counterparts Less likely to use excessive force Implement communityoriented policing Will improve law enforcement s response to violence against women Increasing women officers reduces problems of sex discrimination and harassment within agency 0 Minorities as officers 0 0 Citizens will naturally feel more secure seeing their own race in uniform in their community National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives NOBLE helps unify AfricanAmerican officers to deal with specific issues