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Geography Notes Unit 2 Part 1

by: Gabriela VandenHeuvel

Geography Notes Unit 2 Part 1 GEOG 131 - 001

Gabriela VandenHeuvel
GPA 3.4
Weather/Climate/Climate Chg
Kelsey Nicole Ellis

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About this Document

Weather/Climate/Climate Chg
Kelsey Nicole Ellis
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela VandenHeuvel on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 131 - 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Kelsey Nicole Ellis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Weather/Climate/Climate Chg in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 09/03/15
Geography Class Notes All Matter Contains Energy 0 Ability to do work At the atomic level energy is vibrationmotion kinetic more motion warmer Solid state 4 atoms and molecules a Liquid enough energy to break bonds bound together What Occurs During Warming and Cooling 0 Warming I Increase temperature I Gain energy from surroundings EX Warming by the fire 0 Cooling I Decrease temperature I Loss of energy to surroundings Ex Pouring warm water over ice Energy contained within molecular bonds potential latent hidden Gas more energy so molecules are more mobile 0 Thermal energy heat is transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature objects How is Energy Transferred o Conduction energy transfer via direct contact between and warmer and cooler object 0 Radiation energy transfer by electromagnetic fields 0 Convection vertical heat transfer by ow of a material convection cell convective ow in a somewhat circular path 0 Advection energy transfer by moving mass sideways Electromagnetic Radiation 0 Energy radiated from charged particles 0 Some is visible some is not 0 Has a wavelength amplitude and direction of propagation How is EMR Generated and Transmitted 0 Atom nucleus surrounded by electron shells with different levels of energy increase away from nucleus I If outer electron moves in it emits extra energy as EMR wave 0 Electron within atoms and molecular bonds vibrate back and forth emitting EMR I Faster higher frequency 0 Fusion within sun How Much Energy Does an Object Emit Proton Neutron o StephanBoltzman Law the amount of EMR emitted by an object increases greatly with temperature I Warm objects emit more EMR than cold ones TEMPERATURE C AND K 273 73 127 327 527 Q 700 E E 600 g 500 E 400 E E 300 35 200 E 100 O 0 200 400 600 800 What Range of Wavelengths does an Object Emit quot1 m 0 Some variation in wavelengths and amounts 5 1 because vibrations vary within object g Long 39 f What Determines Peak Wavelength g 10 Radio E o Wien s Law 3 Waves quot g I Cool objects slower movement less g E lt u frequent energy sh1fts em1t less EMR g 0 10 g and longer wavelengths 2 M R d g a a lo V1 I Oppos1te for warmer objects j 390 1o 5 I Exponentlal relatlonsh1p so peak 5 wavelength decreases rapidly for 0 FM Rad 40 j warmer objects which emit shorter Micro 3 T wavelengths waves 0 A Electromagnetic Spectrum if g 0 Energy of different wavelengths of EMR 0 10 sf g I f d 39 5 I Infrared IR longer wavelengths quot quot9 g 2 Earth 10 do i 3 g I Visible Light VL most of Sun s F 3quot 5 energy at these wavelengths mm Ultravi et 0 g g I Ultraviolet UV more energetic than 5 g VL 10 XRays 10m I E 0 Colors within visible light have different E wavelengths red longest to purple 10 g 10 m shortest g 5 1oquot ow 5 Gamma 39 mquot Rays 10quot o Xrays and gamma rays are most energetic 0 000 O O O O O O O Shortwave vs Longwave Energy reaching Earth is mostly at wavelengths of visible light and UV energy leaving Earth is mostly IR Sun emits SW radiation Earth absorbs some SW radiation from the sun This radiation heats the Earth s surface Earth reradiates this heat at a larger wavelength LW radiation How Much Energy is Transferred from Sun to Earth Shortwave energy from the sun is called quotinsolationquot Solar constant average amount of insolation 341 wattsm square What Role Does Orbital Shape Play Earth s orbit is nearly circular Only minor variations in insolation due to distance from the sun Closest to Sun in January perihelion Farthest from Sun in July aphelion What Role Does Solar Cycle Play 0 1 1 year cycle 0 Longterm variations 0 Cold temperatures during minimum I Does not cause seasons or observed spatial variability 400 YEARS OF SUNSPOT OBSERVATIONS 5 Modern g 250 Maximum 2 200 l 3 c E Z 9 g i H 1 11 1139 O i Maunder 3 a g i 1 23100 a Minimum I 1 l i 391 I 1 39 f u D 50 1 In quotI My 1 1 kiJ I m 0 i 5 M iiou J 1 1 11 I1 39 1W 1391 1 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 YEAR What DOES Cause the Seasonality and Spatial Variability of Insolation o Latitude 0 Factors in uencing insolation I Spreading of the solar beam Insolation from lower angles must spread across more surface I Atmosphere attenuation Insolation from lower angles had to pass through more atmosphere 0 Latitudinal Variations I Equator high sun high energy I Midlatitudes just right I Poles low sun angle 9 more attenuation and spreading less energy 2 Ways to Denote Angle of Sun 0 Zenith Angle measure how far sun is from vertical 0 Sun angle Angle of Incidencequot is angled between sun and horizon I Note how insolation is spread out as function of zenith angle from equator to the poles Explains why equator is warmer than poles 0 l l 10 m 115 m 20 m 0 m 1 00 87 50 0 I Insolation with latitude due to impact of attenuation beam spreading and day length varies throughout the day and year What Causes the Seasons 0 Earth s spin aXis is tilted on a plane 235 degrees so its relations to the sun varies during orbit 0 December I North pole is tilted AWAY FROM the sun N hem Winter I South pole is tilted TOWARD the sun S hem Summer 0 March and September I Spin aXis is not pointed toward or away from sun I Transition seasonsquot 0 June I North pole is tilted TOWARD the sun N hem Summer I South pole is tilted AWAY FROM sun S hem Winter Components not to scale 39 Decanbeer I agl June21 39 Mamh21 Solar Declination o Latitude where the sun is directly overhead on a specific day Q Zenith angle 0 0 Sun angle 90 o Ranges from Tropic of Cancer to Capricorn Insolation in Tropics Versus the Poles 0 In tropics Sun is nearly directly overhead zenith angle of 0 degrees to 235 degrees at equator 0 Each time the solar declination passes the equator and shifts to the other tropic a new season starts 0 The poles have much lower zenith angles can actually be 90 degrees and get zero sun DECEMBER 21 JUNE 21 N DECEMBER 21 JUNE 21 yn90t9iz9nz 993 quot39 n n n a n n n n s Sun on Horizon z 90 5 Circle of Illumination o Separates night from day 0 Explains seasonal spatial daylight variability 0 Pole faces away from Sun in winter 24 hours darkness 0 Pole faces sun in summer so 24 hours sunlight Polar Night 0 When night lasts for a day or more all latitudes pole ward of the Circles o 24 hours 6 months 0 Opposite Polar Day 0 90 degrees N and S one sunrise and sunset at Equinox Summarizing Important Moments in EarthSun Relationship 0 Summer Solstice June 21 summer solstice June 21 N I polar day 6 months of day Arctic Circle 665 N 24 hours of daylight Tropic of Cancer 235 N 1 35 hours of daylight 39 Equator 0 1 2 hours of daylight Tropic of Capricorn 235 S 1 05 hours of daylight S Antarctic Circle 665 S 0 hours of daylight nnlar ninhf 6 month of ninhf I Solar declination farthest North I Daylight Pattern 24 hours Fall Equinox Sept 2 1 Earth Axis l l l 2 Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle I Solar Declination equator crosses heading South I Daylight Pattern 12 hours of both day and night Winter Solstice December 21 winter solstice December 21 N I polar night 6 months of night Arctic Circle 665 N 24 hours ofdarkness Tropic of Cancer 235 N 135 hours of darkness Equator 0 12 hours of darkness Tropic of Capricorn 235 S 105 hours of darkness s Antarctic Circle 665 S 0 hours of darkness polar day 6 months of day I Solar Declination Tropic of Capricorn farthest South I Daylight Pattern 24 hours of darkness 0 Spring Equinox March 21 Earth Axis I Aquot Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle I Solar Declination equator I Daylight Pattern 12 hours daynight


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