Popular in Human Geography
Popular in Geography
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Pettiford on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1200 at Ohio University taught by Timothy Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at Ohio University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Hannah!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Human Geography 1200 Prof Anderson Mon Aug 24 2015 Section I Introduction Main Themes and thematic structure Nature of Geography Unifying themes in geog Worldsystems analysis Development and underdevelopment in the WorldEconomy Reading Chapter 1 A The Nature of Geoaranhv De ned by its motive analysis United by a spatial difference of places perspective Geography as landscape analysis means everything around you Two major subdivisions A Physical geography B human geographystudy of differentiation of the bodies on planet a history b economics 0 art d literature Physical Landscapes 0 Weather 0 Climate 0 Biotic processes 0 Geologic processes 0 Fluvial Processes etc Physical processes 0 Geomorphology 0 Bio geology O Climatology Cultural Landscape 0 Religion Language culture race Class Power 0 Gender etc Cultural Processes 0 Cultural geology OOOOO 0 Social geology 0 Land uses strategies 0 Social relations of production 0 Resource use 0 Livelihood strategies 0 Ecologic Processes 0 CulturalPolitical ecology 0 Spatial techniques and methodologies 0 Quantitative Methods 0 Qualitative Methods 0 GIS Remote sensing cartography 0 The Cultural Landscape 0 Structural A The human imprint on the physical landscape B Shaped by cultural values and traditions C Focus is on the built environment a Houses b Walls c Dams d Etc 0 PostStructural A A stage upon which societal struggles are played out B The spaces in which multiple discourses are materialized C Shaped by struggles involving race class gender power etc Wed Aug 26 2015 The Built Environment 0 landscape as a stage turned geography on its head 0 First need to look at landscape in that relative theory then make deductive reasoning B Unifying Themes a Location i Identify the absolute location ii Relative where is it to relation to other places b Place and Space i Distribution Density nature of location places ii Pattern is there a pattern can draw some conclusions by observation c HumanEnvironment Interactions Nature Society Relations i Three HistoricalMajor Models 1 Environmental Determinism pre 1940 a The dominant is the natural 2 Possibilism WWII 1980s a French geographer writing in 1950s who challenged idea of what could be b Environment doesn t determine what we do with it it creates possibilities 3 Environmental Perception Present a August 28 2015 You beliefs habits language shape perception of your environment Our culture alters the way we see the natural environment Any given culture will view the natural environment in many different ways creating a completely different cultural landscape 4 Movement a Relocation Diffusion b Expansion Diffusion i Hierarchical ii Contagious 5 Regions a A bounded segment of earth space Ostergren and Le Bosse b Homogenate or a boundary of same place 0 Historically a central concept in the discipline of geography employed to delimit and define spatial differentiation d But the term means different things to different people all types of regions e Types of Regions 1 Created by authorities within some organization Gov busi Etc ii Administrative purposes planning collecting data or revenue etc iii Boundaries of such regions are clearly demarcated and are usually agreed upon by everyone iv Instituted regions often consist of nested hierarchies e g federal state and local political boundaries in the USA 1 Instituted political boundaries in Germany Ephrata Mas SJ Warwick SJ lrlanheim Central SJ Elizabethtown Area SJ Sooalico SJ Eastern Lancaster County SJ Township SJ Pequea onegal SJ 39u39alley SJ Hempfield SJ Conestoga valley so Penn Manor SJ Elma SJ th LampoterStrasburg SJ ILRHBRSTER EUUHTY PEHHS I L39II39RHIRI Solanco SJ SBHDDL DISTRICTS IMP V Different Interpretations of the Midwest f Denoted regions i Created by academics in order to reduce the complexity of the real world employing systems of classification ii Places in a given space are grouped together because they share one or more commonalities but they are a product of the person who creates them so boundaries may be open to debate and critique 1 Formal homogeneous with respect to certain phenomena 2 Functional places within the region are all tied to the same central place by the movement of people ideas and things C World System Analysis a b c A holistic historical social science approach to understanding societal change Developed by political scientist Immanuel Wallerstein in the 1970s Concerned with the nature development and structure of the world capitalist economy historical capitalism Based on 3 different research traditions i French Annales School of History 1 History from the bottom up 2 Everyday lives of the common people 3 Big picture global perspective ii Dependency theory 1 Critique of development theory in the late 1960s 2 Wealthy nations actively perpetuate a state of inequality and dependence vis Developing economies 3 Developing economies provide natural resources and cheap labor needed by the core to ensure wealth and dominance iii Marxist Theory 1 Historical Materialism social relations of production modes of production who produces what in a society Agegender based division of labor how are goods produced in an economy 2 Stages of economic political development D Mode of Production Type of system Reciprocal lineage minisystems many in historyborder exchange Redistributive tributaryquot worldempires a few in historyfutilismchiefdoms produce good keep order going Capitalist worldeconomy only one in history E Development and Underdevelopment in the WorldEconomy a Structural features of the capitalist worldeconomy 1 ii iii A single worldmarket operating within a capitalist logic ceaseless accumulationthis is not possible for a long time A multiplestate system within which political economic competition is structured A threetiered international economic and spatial structure of stratification in terms of economic development core semiperiphery periphery b Core States 1 ii iii iv v vi Highly developed economies oriented toward the service industries and post industrial technologies google Microsoft apple High standards of living high GNPs etc Stable democratic governments with large militaries Healthy populations Low rates of population growth N America W Europe Japan S Korea Australia and New Zealand c Peripheral States 1 ii iii iv v vi vii viii Most were former colonies of core states subtropical tropical locales Economies focused on production of tropical agricultural goods for export to the core during colonial era Economies still dominated by subsistence agriculture and lowwage labor Relatively low standard of living Weak inefficient and often corrupt government Poor health Young and growing populations Sub Saharan Africa South Asia parts of Southeast Asia parts of Caribb And C America d Semiperipheral States 1 ii iii iv vi Economies focused on industry manufacturing and agriculture Many are former colonies Small but growing service sector especially outsourcing from core states Occupy a midpoint in the worldsystem continuum in terms of socio economic indicators Intense social stratification and class struggle Major players in the current era of globalization vii Traditional ways of life being upset by changes wrought by globalization viii Much of C and Latin Amer E Europe much of SE Asia much of SW Asia SECTION 11 Four Revolutions The Evolution and Dynamics of Global CorePeriphery Relationships Reading Text Ch2 A The Neolithic Revolution a What was it i The domestication of plants and animals 1 Gradual genetic change through selective breeding ii Large scale organized agriculture iii The development of large urban societies iv The development of worldempires in regions Where this occurred