MU 2313 Chapter 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Chapter 1 The Ancient World There aren t many remnants of instruments from early times so there s mostly speculation on the types of instruments and what they sounded like The Stone Age a Civilization i 5 requirements 1 Urban centers a Reasons for people to gather 2 Written language a Evidence of a common language people recording their thoughts and transferring ideas i Cuneiform hieroglyphics 3 Tradecommerce 4 Shared religion a Importance in human thought 5 Centralized government a How society is going to work b Natural History i 6 million years ago began walking upright ii 32 million years ago quotLucyquot fossils found in East Africa iii 100000 years ago cave bear skull worship 1 Cave bear is now extinct 2 Shrines were found 3 Cave bear was larger than the Alaskan brown bear good reason for people to worship if they thought giving offerings would protect them from this creature iv 50000 years ago Neanderthals bury their dead with ceremony and care 1 Indicates a belief in the hereafter andor a sanctity of human life c Religion and Art i Abstraction 1 Love happiness sorrow numbers religion deity all abstract concepts ii Symbolism iii The struggle to understand the complexities of life and death 1 Pantheon a quotall gods b In Greek and Roman cultures d Literacy i Cuneiform Sumerians amp Hieroglyphics Egyptians 1 Developed symbols to represent sounds of words 2 Gave rise to literature a The Epic of Gilgamesh Sumerian b The Egyptian Book of the Dead c The Hymn to the Aton Egyptian e Cave of Chauvet Pontd Arc in France 30K32K BCE i 3234000 years ago ii Contains the earliest art found iii Cave was found in 1994 iv Mold destroyed some of the originals so the cave was recreated for tourists to experience the art 1 Example 1 animals Creates a sense of movement Rhinos have a sense of depth those in the back are smaller 2 Example 2 handprint Negative image Paint is distributed over the hand Could be claiming ownership of the cave a sacrifice Most likely a nomad marking their territory showing quotI was here 3 Example 3 Buffalo Cave dwellers were abstract thinkers Art is an outline of an animal but drawn with dots 4 Example 4 Cave bear Utilizes line to form the image 5 Example 5 Shrine Monuments were set up to cave bears shrine had a cave bear skull Shows the beginnings of religion Cave bear was the largest predator over 10 feet tall 1500 pounds If someone encountered the bear and it doesn t hurt them they would make offering to it so it may provide protection again f Cave of Lascaux France 1513K BCE i Discovered in 1940 ii Curated walkway so people can view it without destroying the artwork iii 15000 years younger than Cave of Chauvet g Venus of Willendorf Austria 2528K BCE i Small sculpture about 44 inches tall ii Woman has enlarged breasts and stomach representing fertility 1 Fertility could be both children and crops h Flute Germany 35K BCE i Made of hollowed out bone ii Was found in 30 fragments archaeologist put pieces together iii Not many instruments have been found from the Paleolithic Era Stone Age 50000 3000 BCE a Paleolithic 50000 8000 BCE i Art 1 Cave paintings 2 Primitive spatial depth movement 3 Subject matter natural world ii Sculpture 1 Usually small jewelry often depicted women primitive detail iii Music 1 No recordings so mostly guesswork 2 Primitive understanding of melody texture 3 Sacred and secular communal gatherings b Neolithic 8000 2300 BCE c The Fertile Crescent i quotCradle of Civilization ii Most of Iraq Iran Turkey Syria Egypt Saudi Arabia d Sumerians i Occupied Mesopotamia the quotfertile crescent ii Advanced society iii Using wheeled transport as early as 3000 BCE iv Used quotcuneiformquot writing created literature 1 Code of Hammurabi a Established legal system b Punishment was equal if both people were of the same social standing c Punishment was more severed for slaves Cuneiform i Made markings with a stylus in soft clay Statue from Square Temple at Tell Asmar c 2750 BCE i Carved from gypsum stone ii Eyes inlaid with shell and black limestone iii About 30 sculptures all have their hands folded faces upturned large eyes 1 Used for religious purpose indicates worshipprayer iv Tallest one is about 30 inches Babylonian musicians c 3000 BCE i Relief sculpture ii Shows the arrival of a guest before what is presumably a king iii String and wind instruments shown possibly a harp and flute Sumerian 6000 BCE 50 CE i Art 1 Not much in existence ii Sculpture 1 Ridged large eyes 2 Usually religious purposes full and relief iii Music 1 Mono poly homophonic texture 2 Sacred and secular uses 3 Multiples instruments string and wind Egyptian Hieroglyphics i Scientists can read due to Rosetta Stone Rosetta Stone i Has the same text written in 3 languages ii Greek Hieroglyphs iii Greek was the keystone to translating the other 2 Prince Rahotep and wife Nofret c 2580 BCE i Depiction of important ruler ii Stiffness of sculpture iii Evidence that they existed Funerary mask of Tutankhamun c 1337 BCE i One of the few burial sites that wasn t looted ii Made of hammered gold and semiprecious stones The Pyramids Egypt c 25002600 BCE i Iconic symbols ii One of the seven ancient wonders of the world still standing iii Largest one is over 500 feet tall iv Required constant slave labor to build v Proof of existence leaving their mark vi Ties to religion body had to be preserved for the afterlife will need all of their things so all of their belonging were buried with them vii Made tunnels to mislead and trap looters Orientation of the Pyramids i Used the stars to navigate Pyramid of KhufuGreat Sphinx 26802565 BCE 2650 BCE i Nose fell off from deterioration by the elements Stonehenge United Kingdom 3K BCE i Standing stones weigh 25 tons were moved 20 miles ii Theory stones were dragged over logs iii Aligned with the stars Egyptian 3000 BCE 50 CE i Art 1 Not much in existence some in hieroglyphics ii Sculpture 1 Very important full and relief 2 Use of color 3 Realistic set technique 1 Poly homophonic texture 2 Sacredsecular uses 3 String instruments iv Architecture 1 Religious purposes 2 Political purposes pharaohs establish their importance 3 Often massive and detailed relief sculptures