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Bio Anthropology Notes 9/1 and 9/3

by: Vanessa Scobee

Bio Anthropology Notes 9/1 and 9/3 ATY 253-01

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Greensboro > Science > ATY 253-01 > Bio Anthropology Notes 9 1 and 9 3
Vanessa Scobee
GPA 4.0
Intro to Biological anthropology
Charles P. Egeland

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How can we tell if a population is evolving? What other than Natural Selection, can cause a population to evolve? Is evolution still happening? How do we know?
Intro to Biological anthropology
Charles P. Egeland
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Scobee on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological anthropology in Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.

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Date Created: 09/03/15
How can we tell if a population is evolving What other than Natural Selection can cause a population to evolve ls evolution still happening How do we know 00 Population genetics gt change in allele frequencies over time not just creation of new gt species group of interbreeding individuals gt all the genetic variants available within a population gt How can we tell if a population is evolving HardyWeinberg Equilibrium o Allele frequencies in a nonevolving population 0 Allele frequencies are inherently stable some force has to change them 3 HardyWeinberg Equilibrium gt IF Mating is random No mutations Equal reproductive success Population is closed Population is large ellelee ere peeeed en elepertienel ie their fr ertiltieine5r THEN allele frequencies will not change no evolution A HW equilibrium allele frequencies will not change over time Static case against which to compare changing evolving allele frequencies departures suggest evolutionary forces are at play ex Population 5 individuals Gene pool 3 AA 60 1 Aa 20 1 aa 20 Is this population in HW equilibrium AA individuals 3 x 2 6 A alleles Aa individuals 1 x 1 1 A allele 7 A alleles 7 10 70 70 are A alleles 10 70 30 30 are a alleles AA WHat is the probability of getting an A allele AND another A allele 0 70 x 70 49 49 o Generalized pquot2 p squared where p frequency of first allele aa What is the probability of getting an a allele AND another a allele 0 30 x 30 09 9 o Generalized qquot2 q squared where q frequency of second allele Aa What is the probability of getting an A allele AND then an a allele OR an a allele and then an A allele 0 70 x 30 30 x 70 42 42 o Generalized 2pq 2 x p x q Ioquot2 2pq qquot2 1 o pquot2 of individuals with homozygous genotypes for one of the alleles o qquot2 of individuals with homozygous genotypes for the other allele 0 2pq of individuals with heterozygous genotype AA Aa aa Expected 49 42 9 Observed 60 20 20 0 99 Forces of evolution gt Mutations gt Natural selection gt Genetic drift gt Gene flow 00 Mutations gt Types of mutations I replacement of a single base with another I insertion or deletion of bases I loss of a chromosome during meiosis I addition of a chromosome during meiosis o klinefelter syndrome I mistake inside the body of DNA replication 9 99 gt gt gt gt Can be good rare bad happens or neutral common Somewhere around 30 mutation per gamete Only mutations in gametes are evolutionarily significant Only source of new genetic variation Natural Selection gt Some individuals have advantageous traits those with advantageous traits survive at higher rates survive reproduce at higher rates reproductive success of a particular genotype natural selection and behavior gt behavior arises both from genes and the environment Types of natural selection gt selection for features that gain mating success I Combat for mates I Female choice More on natural selection gt only acts on phenotypes gt only acts on existing variation gt what is adaptive can change Gene Flow gt movement of alleles from one population to another gt social factors migration travel ability gt Ghengis Khan amp Mongol Empire gt Westward expansion of Ychromosome haplotype Genetic Drift genetic change due to chance change independent of other forces random events can cause change especially strong effect in small populations think about flipping a coin I The fewer times you flip the greater the chances the outcome will deviate from expected I same with populations gt Founder effect small group migrates to an unoccupied region and becomes isolated I ex variegate porphyria I autosomal dominant I 1 in 300 in white South Africans gt gt gt gt O 09 9 99 O 90 O 09 VVVVV 00 ls evolution still happening gt yes and maybe faster than ever before gt selection on 1800 human genes gt many within the past 80000 years some within the past 10000 years 3 Evolution in action gt HIV attacks immune cells gt receptors proteins that receive and transmit messages gt CCR5 receptor door to the cell VVVVVVVV CCR5 gene on chromosome 3 frameshift deletion mutation 32base deletion delta32 malformed CCR5 receptor homozygous CCR5 normal protein infected with HIV heterozygous partial resistance CCR5delta32 homozygous malformed proteins virtually immune from HIV In some populations 20 have a copy of CCR5delta32 Bubonic plague or smallpox


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