Module 1; Chapter 4
Module 1; Chapter 4 SOC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Conrad on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Social Structure recurring patterns of behavior 0 action the ability to operate independent of social restraints 0 social institutions the major arenas of social life in which durable routines and patterns of behavior take place 0 status a position in a social system that can be occupied by an individual idea of everyone acting all the time o thoughts in back of your head versus what you are actually sayingdoing 0 act up to expectations while having different conscious in back of mind I roles sets of expected behaviors associated with particular stresses 0 answering fine when someone asks how are you doing is a script 0 ways in which we presentinteract with each other front versus back stage of mind culture and social structure determine the content of your front stage 0 micro level interactions are scripted o meso level roles in society are understood through social level scripts students sit in class professors stand students answer professors ask think of same sex marriage samegender upsets people to an extent because script changes from manwoman ascribed statuses born with some statusesroles 0 such as femalemale 0 this affects your life script achieved statuses some are not scripted statuses o earned or achieved Ethnomethodoloqv an approach that examines the methods people use to make sense of their daily activities emphasizes the ways in which we collectively create social structure in our everyday activities 0 believe social structure exists because we are constantly creating it as we constructreconstruct social order in our daily routines breaching experiments Harold Garfinkel controlled social situations in which the individuals involved intentionally break s ocial rules violating basic norms and patterns of behavior conservation analysis a method of analyzing the patterns in faceto face conversation that produce the smooth backandforth turn taking of such exchanges 0 all talk is ordered even informal 0 John Heritage amp Steven Clayman 2002 study analyzed news shows looked at Host vs Guest basic routine of interview is the same conven on a practice or technique that is widely used in a particular social setting 0 such as knowing certain things to donot to do in life think job interviews how to act at restaurants 0 these are picked up easily such as when you do jury duty the first time organizational structure the rules and routines both formal and informal that shape daily activity within 0 rganizations 0 example the structure of your school includes the roles played by administrators c ustodial and maintenance staff professors and students social integration the process by which values and social structures bind people together within a society 0 Talcott Parsons pioneer of functionalist theory Functionalists further point out that because social institutions are i nterdependent the equilibrium among them is precarious Functionalists argue that institutions serve specific functions that h elp maintain social stability In some cases therefore specific structures have negative functio ns they are dysfunctional Other dysfunctional aspects of America n society have included slavery and racial discrimination Max Weber 3 Basic Types of Human Action 0 Traditional action motivated by customs think family actions 0 Affective action guided by emotions and feelings think fans tearing down goal posts after college football win 0 Rational action motivated by calculations of efficiency people determining their goals and deciding how to achieve them Georg Simmel society is created by facetoface micro level interactions Gaye Tuchman the news net includes the Associated Press stringers located in remote areas and fulltime reporters TABLE 41 RITZER39S FOUR DIMENSIONS OF MCDONALDIZATION Efficiency Calculablllty Predictability Control Seeking the best possible method for completing tasks often by following a series of highly specified predesigned steps Emphasizing the quantitative aspects of products and services focusing on for example product size cost and time often characterized by the notion that more is betterquot Striving to make products and services the same regardless of place or time This process of standardization can be comforting to customers who know what to expect but may produce jobs that offer little room for creative thought Exercising control over employees and customers by enforcing rigid rules limiting options and using new technologies that monitor and regulate behavior
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