Week One Notes- September 1 & September 3rd
Week One Notes- September 1 & September 3rd PSY - 0010
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PSY - 0010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY - 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Introduction to Psychology gt Day 1 September 1st Psychology scientific study of mind and behavior Mind private inner experience Behavior observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals Psychology s Ancestors The Great Philosophers m oz Nativism philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn gt Nature our biological endowment especially the genes we receive from our parents I innate nativist intuitive genes biology Aristotle oz Philosophical Empiricism the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience gt Nurture refers to the wide range of environments both physical and social that influence our development I learned empiricism environment experience culture I twins are a good example monozygotic but different behavior From the Brain to the Mind The French Connection Rene Descartes 15961650 oz French philosopher that argued for dualism between mind and body a mind and body are separate Thomas Hobbes 15881679 a argued against Descartes a mind and body are connected or are a whole Franz Joseph Gall 17581828 00 Phrenology a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of the brain oz Gall was right about the certain parts of brain having certain qualities Pierre Flourens 17941867 oz surgically removed brain pieces argued against Gail s methods Paul Broca 18241880 oz studied brain damaged patients left frontal lobe to link localization to ability gt Broca s Area linked to speech I right in front of the ear 1 Functionalism study how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments William James 18421910 oz First to take scientific approach to study Psychology 3 Influenced by DanVin oz If our physical self changes over timethen so does our mental self gt emphasis on how the mind functions gt wider variety of participants gt adaptability and intelligences gt compared individual differences gt women differ in ability and personality compared to men 2 Structuralism analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 zo aka father of psychology oz opened the first psychological laboratory gt Consciousness a person s subjective experience of the world and the mind gt lntrospection the subjective observation of one s own experience Introduction to Psychology gt Day 2 September 3rd Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory gmund Freud 18561939 believed everything happened for a reason due to your subconscious believed personality was a result of early childhood experience oz Psychoanalytic Theory unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors gt hysteria associated with women gt free association and dreams gt freudian slips gt widely used today oz Psychoanalysis a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders gt superego ego and id I superego and id are at a constant battle 0 id eat cake 0 superego don t eat cake you ve had enough Objective Measurement Behaviorism Takes Center Stage oz Behaviorism an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior gt eg in grade school being awarded with gold stars for behaving well gt John Watson 18781958 I believed tabula rossa I how we behave is the stimulus we are exposed to I very nurture oriented I little albert 0 little albert learned to fear white rats due to noise association with the stuffed animal he was given gt Margaret Washburn 18711939 gt Ivan Pavlov 18491936 gt BF Skinner 19041990 I known for the skinner box The Emergence of Cognitive Psychology oz Cognitive Psychology the scientific study of mental processes including perception thought memory and experience gt how do we add 353489 arrange one on top of the other or calculate gt Max Wertheimer 18801943 I wanted to know how we learned language I Gestalt Psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of parts 0 see everything as a whole 0 eg you see your friend not her eyeball and mouth and nose and ears and legs 399 Mueller L yer Line Illusion gt which line is longer I same length except ends are inverted o Shepard s Tables gt same table but different orientations make tables look different gt the way we process shadows angles lines etc make them different gt Sir Frederic Bartlett 18861969 gt Jean Piaget 18961980 gt Kurt Lewin 18901947 PET Scans of Healthy and Alzheimer s Brains zo Cognitive Neuroscience 3 Behavioral Neuroscience Evolutionary Psychology 3930 Evolutionary Psychology a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection gt influenced by Darwin James and E0 Wilson I testable predictions gt an evolutionary psychologist would look into how things have changed over time in human nature and how they evolved into what they are today gt it is hard to test this Humanistic Psychology 00 Abraham Maslow 19081987 Carl Rogers 19021987 pioneered a new movement in Humanistic Psychology I changed the words of their questions or statements in order to make the patients feel like customers and less like they had issues gt Humanistic Psychology an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings gt Social Psychology a subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior I understanding things like prejudice and discrimination and whyhow we behave the way we do socially o eg evaluating the holocaustnazi party or genocides or why we don t like the people that go to Penn State 0 eg what s trending Cultural Psychology 00 Cultural Psychology the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members gt studied by psychologists and anthropologists gt Absolutionism culture makes little difference on psychology gt Relativism psychological phenomena are likely to vary considerably across cultures