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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaydra Notetaker on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Week 3 Review of ExocrineEndocrine Glands Exocrine simplecomplex ducts secretes products to body surface types merocrine halocrine apocrine Endocrine ductless secretes product directly into bloodstream lymph Connective Tissue Continued Ground Substance unstructured material ch0077 Fibers Types 1 Collagen biggest and strongest 2 Elastic recoil 3 Reticular thinnest branch out Remember the suffix blast means immature cell actively dividing forms ground substance the suffix cyte means fully differentiated mature cell Cell Types 1 Fat Cell also known as adipose tissue stores energy insulates body 2 White Blood Cells WBC Types 1 Neutrophil first to appear on site in defense of body immune system 2 Macrophage engulfs and digests threat to body Week 3 immune system 3 Lymphocyte 3 Mast Cell causes in ammation in response to pathogen andor foreign substance in body releases heparin and histamines the reason for allergies 4 Fibroblast produce bers in connective tissue Types 1 Collagen 2 Elastic 3 Reticular Connective Tissue Proper Types 1 Loose Types 1Areolar Description gellike matrix with all three ber types cells broblasts macrophages mast cells and some white blood cells Function wraps and cushions organs holds and tissue uid Location widely distributed under epithelia of body form lamina propria of mucous membranes packages organs surrounds capillaries 2 Adipose Description Matrix similar to that of areolar but very sparse closely packed adipocytes fat cells have nucleus pushed to side of droplet Function energy storage and insulation Location under skin in subcutaneous tissue around kidneys and eyeballs within abdomen in breasts White fat food energy storage Brown fat heat function usually in hibernating animals 3 Reticular Description network of reticular bers in a typical loose ground substance cells lie on the network Function form a soft internal skeleton stroma to support other cell types WBC s mast cells macrophages etc Location lymphoid organs lymph nodes bone marrow spleen Week 3 2 Dense Types 1 Regular Description parallel collagen bers with a few elastic bers major cell is broblasts poorly vasculated Function attaches muscle to bone or other muscles attaches bone to bone withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction Location tendons most ligaments 2 Irregular Description irregularly arranged collagen bers with some elastic bers and broblasts Function can withstand tension in multiple directions structural strength Location joints dermis of skin submucosa of digestive tract 3 Elastic Description dense and regular with high proportion of elastic bers Function allows tissue to recoil maintains pulsatile of blood ow through arteries recoil of lungs Location walls of large arteries bronchial tubes certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column Cartilage very strong avascular can withstand tension and compression has a uid matrix tends to become hard and bony with age ossify Types 1 Hyaline Description amorphous rm matrix collagen bers chondrablasts produce matrix when mature Function supports and reinforces provides a resilient cushion resists compressive stress Location forms most of an embryonic skeleton end of long bones in joint cavities nose trachea larynx 2 Elastic Description similar to hyaline but has more elastic bers Function to maintain shape with exibility Location external ear pinna epiglottis 3 Fibrocartilage Description matrix is less rm than hyaline thick collagen bers Function tensile strength absorbs compression shock Location pubic symphysis discs of knee joint Week 3 Other Connective tissues Bone osseous tissue Description hard calcifies matrix with many collagen bers Function to supports and protect provide levers for muscles to move act on stores minerals and fat marrow site for blood cell formation hematopoiesis Location bones Blood Description red and white cells in uid matrix plasma Function to transport respiratory gases nutrients wastes and other substances Location contained in blood vessels Muscle Types 1 Skeletal Description long cylindrical multinucleate cells obvious striations stripes Function voluntary movement locomotion manipulation of the environment facial expressions voluntary control Location in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin 2 Cardiac Description striated striped but less than skeletal muscle branches one to two nuclei self excitatory Function as it contracts it propels blood into circulation involuntary control Location walls of the heart 3 Smooth Description spindleshaped with central nuclei no striations stripes arranges closely in sheets Function propels substances and objects ie food urine a baby along internal passageways involuntary Location walls of hollow organs such as the bladder and uterus Nervous Description neurons branching cells cell processes may be long and extended from nucleus containing body also contributing to nervous tissue nonexcitable supporting cells Function to transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity Location brain spinal cord nerves tegories of Connective Tissuefquot l Connective Tissue Proper 2 Fluid Connective Tissue 3 Supporting Connective Tissue Week 3 What are Membranes continuous sheets of epithelial tissue secured to a base structure they line and cover the body Types 1 Cutaneous Membranes the skin covers the body s surface two main layers 1 Epiderrnis strati ed squamous epithelia mostly dead super cial to the dermis 2 Dermis function is to be the rst line of defense for the body 2 Mucous Membranes Mucosae line body cavities that are open to the exterior environment Wet meaning it is bathed in a liquid such as mucous urine etc involved in lubrication absorption and secretion composed of epithelium on top of lamina propria 3 Serous Membranes line body cavities that are closed to the exterior environment composed of strati ed epithelium on top of alveolar connective tissue Regenerative Capacity of Tissues High Regenerative Capacity epithelial tissue bone tissue areolar tissue dense irregular connective tissue Moderate Regenerative Capacity bloodforming tissue smooth tissue dense regular connective tissue Virtually No Regenerative Capacity cardiac tissue nervous tissue Tissue Repair Step 1 In ammation sets the stage severed blood vessels bleed in ammatory chemicals are released Week 3 local blood vessels become more permeable allowing white blood cells uid clotting proteins and other plasma proteins to seep into injured area clotting occurs and the surface dries to form a scab Step 2 Organization restores blood supply clot is replaced by granulation tissue restores blood supply f1broblasts produce collagen bers to bridge the gap macrophage phagocytize dead and dying cells and other debris surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over granulation tissue Step 3 Regeneration and Fibrosis effect permanent repair f1brosed area matures and contracts epithelium thickens fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of scar tissue results Tissue and Embryonic Development Mesoderm forms muscle tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue Ectoderm Forms nervous tissue epithelial tissue Endoderm forms inner lining of digestive system epithelial tissue Tissue and Aging epithelia thin as we age skin becomes easily breakablepenetrable and more fragile bone tissue muscle tissue and nervous tissue all become more fragile begin to atrophy to weaken and lose function likelihood of cancer increases The Integumentary System hair skin and nails skin overall body covering synthesis of vitamin D sensory receptors located here glandular system located here Week 3 cells heavily keratinized Functions of the Integumentary System 1 Protection pH of skin 5 kills off many foreign organisms ie bacteria 2 Regulation of Body Temperature sweat to cool off Veins constrict to warm up 3 Cutaneous Sensation contains sensory receptors 4 Metabolic Function synthesis of Vitamin D 5 Blood Reservoir ve percent of blood located in the skin 6 Excretion think sweat and oil glands
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