INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS CH 1 Notes
INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS CH 1 Notes MATH 10041-007
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Nichol on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MATH 10041-007 at Kent State University taught by Xianglan Bai in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS in Math at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
STATISTICS CH 1 From the book 11 Collecting and analyzing observations to answer question about our surroundings and the universe fundamental concept different versions of a piece of data ex drawing three circles that are three different sizes Numbers in context ex the three circles are recorded by comparing diameterscircumferences REFER TO PAGE 4 FOR MORE EXAMPLES FOR THE INFO ABOVE 12 characteristics of people or things ex gender and weight data grouped into a collection 0 Sample is just one piece of the population a data set that includes information about everyoneeverything observed REFER TO PAGE 6 FOR EXTRA DETAILS ON EACH DEFINITION ABOVE Most important part of data When recording data record extra supporting information ex askanswer the question quothow were the variables measuredquot REFER TO PAGE 67 TO SEE PROPER QUESTIONS TO ASKANSWER 2 TYPES 1 quantities of objects in numbers ex weight of an infant 2 qualities of objects ex gender of an infant FOR PRACTICE ON IDENTIFYING VARIABLES GO TO PAGE 8 Numbers representing a category ex the number 1yes The number Ono Categoryfemae girl1 boy0 the number 1 does belong to the category and the number 0 does not belong Data stored in a spreadsheetlike format A variable is represented in each column variables from different groups are represented in each column SEE PAGE 9 FOR EXAMPLES OF STACKED DATA amp UNSTACKED DATA In class day 1 i symbol for the average of a sample u symbol for the average of the population using chance and selecting people at random as samples of the population n sample N population a list of each person in a population Using random numbers to determine the sample When the population is separated into different groups called strata that do not overlap and a simple random sample is taken from each group The people used at samples must be similar For example girls and boys are separated When you select every quotnthquot from the population and the rst one corresponds to a random number between 1 and n When you select all of the individuals that are in a random group orcoHchon When a sample is contained because it is easier access and rather than doing it by randomness 1 SelfselectedNoluntary samples the person taking the survey participates in it themselves ex using the internet phone or radio to collect answers From the book 13 organizessummarizes two related categorical variables and compares them REFER TO OF PAGE 13 TO SEE EXAMPLE OF HOW THIS WORK how many times a value occurs in a data set 14 One thing or variable being the effect of another variable 1 Treatment variable the tool being used to observe change in behavior of the subjects ex If students are being tested on if paper note taking works better over computer note taking the paper and computer are the treatment variable 2 OutcomeResponse variable records the respond to the treatment variable 3 People who receive the treatment variable are in the treatment group and those who don t are in the controlcomparison group 4 Anecdote Evidence or a story told of someone s experience with something which is used for observations ex Someone tells the story of how eating peanut butter stopped their hair loss FOR EXAMPLES OF ABOVE DEFINITIONS SEE PAGE 14 amp 15 When a subject thinks there is a change because they are given a treatment whether that treatment works or not The psychological effect ex thinking a pain in your body stopped hurting simply just because you took a pill that someone said works When a subject in a study is observed and recorded for their natural actions rather than a researcher controlling where they are placed or what they are doing 1 Compares the outcome variable of the control group to the outcome variable of the treatment group The reason why the outcomes between two different groups are different FOR EXAMPLES OF ABOVE DEFINITIONS SEE PAGE 16 When researchers are in control of the subjects in a treatment group and control group that are alike in every way except for one receiving a treatment while the other one does not 0 Four key features 1 Sample sizearge so there is a variety of the subject being studied 2 The subjects assigned to each group must be at random ex using a computer or ipping a coin 3 Supposed to be quotdoubleblind de nition is below in notes 4 Supposed to use a placebo ex medical treatment both groups must receive same attention FOR EXAMPLES ON HOW THESE WORK SEE PAGES 1819 when the results of a study are persuaded in a certain direction To avoid this the blinding and doubleblind method is used when either researchers or the subject don t know who is assigned to which group until after the study is concluded when both the researchers and subjects don t know which group they re assigned to When reading a study ask yourself 0 which kind of experiment it was controlled or observational how large the sample size was if it follows the four key features shown above if it has been peerreviewed o if it followed the subjects long enough PRACTICE ON HOW TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS IS ON PAGE 2123