Biopsychology Week 6
Biopsychology Week 6
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This 2 page Reader was uploaded by Monica Stert on Thursday May 8, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 05/08/14
48 IX Cognitive Neuroscience A Definition 1 Brain localized and connected neural activity neuroscience aspect single cell recording measure of activity and surgical removal manipulation of activity 2 Mind mental processes cognitive psychology behavioral output measurement of a mental event ex Reaction time and behavioral task or stimulus event manipulate mental event like memorizing face B Methods of cognitive neuroscience 1 Animal studies a Examples 1 Behavioral task or stimulus event like having a rat swim to a platform connect with single cell electrical recordings in hippocampus of rat 2 Surgical removal of brain region remove parts of basal ganglia movement and behavioral output what his behavior is afterwards b Advantages 1 Direct link between brain activity and mental processes and direction relationships cause and effect interferences c Disadvantages 1 Extrapolating from rat to human may not be valid may not be learning about human mind 2 Evasive 2 Patient studies a Examples 1 Damaged areas in brain naturally not instigated localized 2 Effects the damage has on the mind 3 Brain localization FFA area temporal lobe and recognition inability to produce language in Broca s area 4 Alzheimer39s more diffuse across brain and developmental diseases 5 Split brain patients 6 Focal injuries damage to very specific region of the brain that leads to very specific impairments of cognitive function 7 Case studies effect of cognitive damage on cognition by overlapping areas of brain damage to attain information 8 Double dissociations must be careful about associations strong argument that observed differences reflect functional difference between the groups rather than unequal sensitivity of the b Advantages 1 Direct link between brain and mind c Disadvantages 1 Manipulation is uncontrolled don t control values results can be confounded 3 Neuroimaging studies a Manipulate aspect of the mind like memory b Output is fMRPET activity as a measurement of local change in metabolism local change in blood flow C d PET positron emission tomography measures metabolic activity in the brain by monitoring distribution of tracer measures photons that are produced during decay of tracer MRI exploits magnetic properties of organic tissue hydrogen ions within the tissues are polar and they generally align with magnetic field A radio frequency pulse is transmitted through the tissue it knocks the hydrogen ions off their spin The ions then process back into alignment This procession can be measured and different tissues have different rates of procession 1 fMRl takes head coil received information along gradients picks up oxygen and deoxygenated hemoglobin differences uses oxygen to create energy form neuron takes about 56 seconds bold activations ratio of oxygenated blood over deoxygenated blood 2 Reading mind with fMRl can read certain aspects of their mind e Advantages 1 1 Neural activity in normal brain localize cognitive processes high spatial resolution Disadvantages 1 Indirect measure of brain activity poor temporal resolution 56 seconds to peak