Week 2 Lecture- Egyptians and Greeks
Week 2 Lecture- Egyptians and Greeks ST 150 - 20
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
9315 Class intro discussion 3500 BC we believe civilization city organized government written language begins in Mesopotamia today39s Iraq Mesopotamia land between two rivers Sumerians rst civilization in Mesopotamia 3200 BC civilization begins in Egypt 30002500 BC In today39s Pakistan 1500 BC civilization in today39s China near the Yellow River Code of Hammurabi a wellpreserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia The Code of Hammurabi has been and is still a focal point of study because we physically have it 1 The main goal of the prologue is to set in line a string of power in a way The prologue gives veri cation for why the code was made and the necessity to protect the oppressed The so main goal of the epilogue bolsters the credibility of Hammurabi s Code of Laws The king clari es there is nothing like his guidance it has unique value and strength Social class structure was established in separation Each class of people based on gender or social standing faces different punishments and nes for their actions There is no staple order that allows everyone to face the same price ln society women were viewed as disposable Society was also viewed from a male stance of keeping women in line to what was needed from them as they were to follow essentially whatever men asked of them Women paid a high price for each thing that was considered a wrong doing in the eyes of the law The law was not there to protect their life and choices but to limit them in subservient position Women did get some bene ts as in living support An example being if a man kicks his wife out the husband pays for her and her child comparative to current day child support The economic system was controlled on a law basis There was not compromise or bargaining in means of nancial transactions Everything was essentially de ned in clear terms of what was owed for each service There was no space for people to set up their own price for a service meaning there was no competition for services in that manner The economic system was established on a monetary or trade system in some cases Based on paragraphs 133135 the society is brutal towards women They have no control in matters of their life In situations of personal loss they face great persecution and truly have little to no choice where they shall end up in matters of their own families Especially in the last paragraph if a women has children with a second husband and her previous husband returns she has to leave her children as if they are not hers but belong to that husband War is not a crazy occurrence it happens often and is dealt with in a realistic manner Egypt 0 Unlike Mesopotamia the Egyptians developed without outside con ict 0 The Nile River connects to the Egyptian emphasis on order and balance Prospers close to 3000 years c The pyramids in Egypt were built within the rst few centuries that civilizations arises in Egypt 0 To effectively build the pyramids they had to have incrediblv effective farming climate allowed for year round growing 0 Great Pyramid of Cheops o 40 stories tall 0 Blocks of stone 27 tons each 0 Finish layer of stones on top to make it perfectly smooth 0 Later dynasties take stones from pyramids for building mater 0 Chambers inside pyramids that were compete King Tut 0 His tomb got overlooked o Ruled over a period of transition 0 Unlike other tombs Tut s tomb was not robbed y when it was found in the 192039s it was valued Slavery used throughout history 0 Used to be believed slaves built pyramids limestone Easting Removed 391 Grand llet 39 Ascending 0 Leading theory now is that pyramids were built 1 Winter by conscripted labor from the citizens Queen Chal nh f 39 Greeks iluislul arr Mycenaean or Bronze Age Eary imam r 1 me civilization beings around 2000 mm A peninsula i 0 Know very little about this if Capable sailors Traded Went to wa r Society separated had etc lmr Polytheistic o Trojan War occurred near the end of this period OOOO micro lmm O 1860518705 Schliemann excavated ruins on the coast of Turkey and found a city that was likely Troy the Iliad then is based in some truth as in going to war with some city in Asia Minor Dark Age Greek civilization goes into an age of no writing for years 0 Disease cultural decline war Classical or Hellenic Age Greek civilization revives around 7503C Age of Greek City States or Political Age 0 The writings of Homer will tell stories form this time period Factual basis of stories doesn39t matter From Homer39s stories and others we see Greeks of the Classical or Hellenic Age 0 Value strength and athleticism in battle cultural values how Gods are to be viewed and worshipped In a large sense narratives tell us humans were viewed as pawns of the Gods Gods are powerful and favor sides BUT humans also have an impact free will 0 There is fate that govern ways of life On large scale Greeks recognize they can impact their lives and the lives of others as human beings without Godly power The Iliad tells of a time around the Trojan War focused on Achilles the greatest Greek warrior He decides not to ght after losing a great love Man Killing Hector from the opposing side ght killing Greeks Finally Achilles39 cousin is killed be Hector so nally he goes out and kills Hector Humanism the individual matters their thoughts will and actions can and do make a difference 0 Greek civilizations were broken into city states essentially its own country or nation state Ex Athens Attica etc Colonies essentially become their own independent city state that govern themselves in essence City states relatively small generally around 5000 male citizens Politically city states still look like the rest of the world 0 Over a few hundred years in a gradual process they were towards selfgovernment and seoments of democracv taking place over kings Athens ends up with direct democracy meet in assemblies and vote 0 Sparta takes some steps but retain Kings just limits to nobles39 power Anyone that wasn t Greek was seen as a barbarian term from the Greeks used to describe people who spoke other languages Greeks developed a concept of heavily armored infantry hoplite Armies were citizen soldiers no professional military 0 Brouoht their own weapons own food and no pav O o Persian Wars Nearly wiped out Greece 0 Motivated personally if they won they get a share of the winning money to be made in good outcomes 0 Poor didn39t ght because they couldn39t afford weaponry Greek science law drama democracy architecture during the Classical or Hellenic age Persian Empire the largest this part of the world has ever seen Greek city states on coast of Asia were conquered Greek city states staged a rebellion around SOOBC By 4993C the revolt was crushed city states failed The Athenians sent 20 warships to aid the Greeks Persians go on a mission to destroy Athens Athens the largest and wealthiest of the city states based on merchant wealth from trade Battle of Marathon Persians plan to march to Marathon to engage Athenians Spartans said they might come 0 Athens takes a vote 6 to 5 in favor of attack 0 Advance on the Persian camp 0 Athenians push Persians to their ships even push them onto ships set some on re Persians barely escape Athenians have GREAT victory and want to notify their city of great victory o Persians could come back and attack since they sailed away 0 Send a runner 26 miles to tell the city they won and the Persians could be on their way 0 Army gets there in time as Persians sail in so they retreat Spartans missed out on the great battle after arrived a day late 480 BC Persians send an army of about a quarter of a million in revenge largest eet of the time across the Aegean sea Goal is to conquer and rule ALL of Greece Small Spartan force sent out to stop them Greeks often had wars against themselves those battles set aside and uni ed First force of 300 Spartans Battle of Thermopylae 0 Road narrow shelf bet ocean and cliffs 0 Several thousand Persians on the road and Spartans phalanx spanned the whole road so Persians lose their advantage on numbers Wave after wave of troops cut down 0 Greek navy lead by Athenians holds off Persians in a straight Persians ght for 3 days only ght in registered phalanx with spears o Kept fresh troops up front penalty for breaking phalanx was death because it endangers everyone s lives around you Persians bribe local goat herd to nd a path and get them from behind o Wipe out the Spartans and continue their march Battle becomes inspiring for other Greeks and uni es them Comparative to the Alamo in American History Athenians decide they can39t save the city and leave Battle of Platea Persian army defeated on land Defeat on sea Persian eet is defeated by united Greek eet 479 BC END OF PERSIAN WARS What39s signi cant about the Greek victory over the Persians QUIZ Q perhaps 0 Stops Persian advance and allows Greek Culture and civilization to survive 0 One side is servants ordered the other side is citizens ghting for their own way of life First victorv of an armv of free citizens over an armv of ordered soldiers bv kind o Left its mark for future civilizations a sort of legacy Tremendous sense of destiny for the Greeks very inspiring o Greek39s can39t maintain unity they go back to ghting themselves in a civil war Peloponnesian War o Civil war between Athens and allies against Sparta and allies o Went on for nearly 10 years then a truce lasting a decade then ghting again Wrecking Greek society 0 At the end of Persian wars Greeks leave themselves open to be conquered Lose political independence 0 Sparta won most land battles o Athenians rebuilt and thrived at sea