World Civilizations II: Week 1 Lecture Notes
World Civilizations II: Week 1 Lecture Notes HIST 1020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 511 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations 11 World History Dr Althouse Friday 82115 ISLAM originates in the Arabian Peninsula in 600s Spreads to Africa and even Spain World religion spreading especially in subSaharan Africa rulers and elites adopt it quicker than poor folk and farmers Spain and Portugal Iberian Peninsula had much con ict over this Spread of Islam 620s birth of Islam Muhammad Arabs were tribal groups Ghana go and salt producers Spread of Islam mid 600s North Africa above the Sahara Egypt Cairo Trade Cities Byzantine Empire based in Turkey along the coasts of Africa Berbers many different types of them in North Africa Shepherds in Atlas Mountains in Sahara merchants etc Some accepted Islam quickly and others were very against it Berbers Those along the coast convert to Islam easily mel ChantS saw it as a good business opportunity Soldiers helped Berbers spread into Europe Europe Spain and Portugal In 711 Islam conquered Europe They were improved economically After 1000 Christians in Spain and Portugal wanted to retake their territory and pushed Muslims to the southern region of Europe called the Reconquista SubSahara Desert Berbers along the fringes of the Sahara Desert Camel GafaVanS carried gold and salt across the desert By the 11th century they still refuse to be conquered IBN Yasin was a wandering Berber quotHoly Manquot who carried Islam Bililt a more Strict 1313mm Almoravids those bound together in the cause of God Lack unity so they39re losing ground to Ghana dominant power between 5001200 Rulers in 1200 begin to adopt Islam for trade connections and power 1200s NCW pOWel in subsaharan Africa Mali Empire shows the existence of great empires in Southern Africa Sundiata created a government structure COHViHCCS Village leaders to give him their allegiance Village leaders are called Mansa Mali fillers and court of cials became Muslims All others did not Abllbivlk l i II exploration in 1300s 1312 Mansa Musa takes over In 1324 he set 011tt0 Mecca with over 10 tons of gold Spent a 10t 0f 801d in Cairo value of gold dropped 25 Monday 82415 Mansa Musa 13121337 pilgrimage to Mecca 13241325 FOCUS 011 Timbuktu as the center of learning Once he got back home he became a devout Muslim Mansa Suleyman 134113 60 visitors want to come to Mali IBN Battlita came to Mali to observe the government and worship and he wrote all about it Mali goes into decline by the 1400s Swahili Coast east Africa Islam GOId ivory and slaves came from Africa during this time Indian Ocean is a huge trade zone East Africa becomes tied into the Indian Ocean trade system while Muslims dominate trade Arab Muslims arrived on the East African coast mid 700s Arab merchants married East African women to tap into trade goods from the interior Monsoon WlndS summer monsoon winds blow towards India and winter monsoon winds blow towards east Africa More coastal trade towns develop due to monsoon winds Swahili post 1000 Coastal trade towns mixed Arab MUSIim religious in uence but majority of people are East Africans so they didn39t bother to learn Arabic language MogadiSh and Kilwa were most important ISland Kilwa was in control of gold trade by 1200 Swahili Coast 40 tOWHS along the coast These tOWIlS 211 6 independent of each other MUSIim Sultans are their rulers Top levels of society are incredibly wealthy Islamic from Arabia Dressed in silk from East AsiaChina Jewelry made of gold and silver Pilgrimage to Mecca Collect trade goods Middle class East Africans who converted to Islam to gain better jobs Literacy in Islamic religion assists people to get these jobs slaves 1498 ships from Western Europe Portugal arrive on the east coast while trying to get pepper from India They are upset that Muslims control trade 150081 Holy War against the Muslims Ethiopia post 1000 4th century Ezana ruler of Axom was Christian Coptic Church founded in Egypt 6008 is cut Off from due to Islam Surrounding them Ethiopians see themselves as an outpost for Christianity carrying the torch Think of themselves as God39s chosen people believed a more Jewish form of OT 1100 reconnecting with the Christian world Ruler Claims he has descended from Moses and Aaron to justify his rule Establishes the Zagw dynasty 1150 1270 Expansion through Christianity sky rockets Christians gain local control capital city of Adefa Reopen routes from Ethiopia to the Holy Land in 1200 Lalibela 12001250 recreate a quotJerusalemquot in Ethiopia Use names of places from Jerusalem for their buildings in the capital of Adef Cut a river through the capital and named it the Jordan 12701 Solomids take over from the Zagw By the 13005 these ChriStian 116139s had begun a long term con ict with Muslims to the east 154081 feaCh 011tt0 Portugal who sends about 400 men to help defeat Muslims in Ethiopia Wednesday 82615 China had a centralized government system with an emperor up to 900s Confucius 500890081 Tang Dynasty stable 9079601 5 Dynasty Period unstable ve different ruling dynasties in north China Zhao Kuangyin Tail founded the Song Dynasty 960127 6 Emphasized civilians in charge Makes the military less dominant issues defending China 1004 and 1044 China bribed barbarian groups not to invade them Song Dynasty Successes more government power than ever Chinese have their own form of bureaucratic gridlock Wide population growth Year 750 about 50 million people Year 1000 100 million people Rice became important and takes over as the backbone of diet in the north SilkWOI mS became popular as well so that civilians could gain wealth GI OWth 0f Cities some had roughly 1 million people and some people couldn39t fit and had to live outside of the city walls 1127 JUI Chen invade northern China and establish the Chin J in Dynasty Song Dynasty ees to the south and establish new capital Hangzhou Economy gTOWS mainly to the sea trade through the canal and Indian Ocean Porcelain and silk were commonly traded items JunkS fancy ships originally Arab became common as the Chinese supersized them Largest ship was 300 feet long and could carry over 1000 tons of cargo plus 5001000 people Magnetic compass is invented in China and lighthouses are set up along the coast Had books about foreigners 1220s Zhao Rugua author of Records of Foreign Peoples c 1225 Government Trade Policy send trade missions along the Indian Ocean SPOHSOTS banquets merchants and ship captains came sometimes included sailors GuaranteeInsure to protect damaged goods 10 customs tax Rice and weapons could not be exported out of China Silk is in high demand as an export gold silver tea and porcelain are also important Maj or import sulfur from Japan for their gunpowder Spices fruits and rice imported from Southeast Asia MediCine ArabMuslim ideas from Middle East Smallpox vaccines Religion Islam and Jews Friday 82815 Feudal Japan Lecture Terms Feudalism system in which a ruler needs the agreement of powerful land owners 39 Ruler gt landowners gt followers 39 Mid 600s Japan wasn39t unified Divided into regionsvillages ruled by kill groups 39 Common descent ancestry with each having its own behavior Each region has its own deity and code 39 Feudal values was tied to government in 1100 Samurai warriors who answered to their region39s landowner Military emperor had to give landowners power in their regions Yamato Clan mid 600s go to battle with rival groups Trying to establish a centralized government similar to China 39 Established an emperor from the quotSunquot deity Capita1 cities Fujiwarakyo 694 Nara 710 Heian late 700s Taira Clan one of two most powerful warlord families 1160s begin to ght the Minamoto Clan in capital Heian for power to become emperor 39 Won control Minamoto Clan one of two most powerful warlord families 39 1180s returned to chase Tail a out Of the capital 39 Rewarded by the emperor by being named a Shogun Taira Kiyomori Minamoto Kiyomori 39 Shogun top military and pOIitical of cial Kamakura Shogunate 11851333 Time period in which there is an emperor and a Shogun from Minamoto Clan Economic progress iron work paper making pottery etc Feudal Culture simplicity military disciplines martial arts codes of conduct to maintain honor ritualized forms of behavior value of words is importantkeep agreements and religion Zen Buddhism Mongol invasion attempts 1274 1281 39 Seppuku Zen Buddhism meditation and selfcontrol less strict version of Buddhism
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