A&P Week 2 - Notes
A&P Week 2 - Notes BIOL 2457
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Peterson on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
82712015 Positive Feedback Labor Positive Feedback Blood Loss a cd i c Interactions Animation 3 A 4 nqwr ai I s U Norma condition heart pumps blood under Mao Lose 39P Q mieedbackmntrmmm pressure to body cells oxygen and nutrients 4 30 3 y is 39Severe blood loss Blood pressure drops 39 Cells receive less oxygen and function less efficiently if blood loss continues Heart cells become weaker Heart doesn39t pump BP continues to fall You must be connected to the intemei to run this animation Homeostatic Imbalances y g Homeostatic I mbalances Areas of SCience Normal equilibrium of body processes is disrupted 39 Moderate imbalance Epidemiology Disorder or abnormality of structure and function occurrence of diseases Disease specific for an illness with recognizable signs and Trans mission in a community symptoms Signs are objective changes such as a fever or swelling Symptoms are subjective changes such as headache ISevere imbalance I Death Pharmacology Effects and uses of drugs quotTreatment of disease 14 y i 8272011 5 Clinical Connection Diagnosis of Disease 39 Baalc Anatomical Terminology Distinguishing one disorder or disease from another 39Signs and symptoms Common language referring to body structures and their functions 39 Anatomists use standard anatomical position and special vocabulary in relating body parts 39 Medical history Collecting information about event Present illnesses and past medical problems Physical examinatlon 39 39 Orderly evaluation of the body and its function Noninvasive techniques and other vital signs pulse Body Positions g 4 A 9mm Anatomical position Descriptions of the human body mum assume it is in a Specific stance 39 A Body is upright Terms for a reclining body 39Prone position Body is lying face down Supine position 0 Body is lying face up Body upright 39 Standing erect facing the observer 6 Head and eyes facing fonva rd 139 Feet flat on the floor and forward r w fan a a 551 Anatomicalpontion A g m on law Fuh aim1 will Upper limbs to the sides m 39 Palms turned forward I 1 l Regional Names Several major regions identified Most principal regions IHead Skull and face 39 Neck 39 Supports the head and attach to trunk 39 Trunk 0 Chest abdomen and pelvis 0 Upper limbs Attach to trunk shoulder armpit and arm Lower limbs 39 Attach to trunk buttock thigh leg ankle and foot QIEECHMM TIMI I Mili l superiortmo39e asm namwmawwmasmta ttpphrllk natural 39 39 39 tnfurlor rfg fa m amt or Wenonah at 39 uncurroranr uwmw Wumak mdt ck i 39 Postcriar39rw39rl new iw ewrli talii tt39mifl t I mam Masai seawatersaw 39 3 Lateral New W rm homing murmamchrMMia m 39meumm lasttatcnt poiurM or a of the who Contrltamai EWtri l t On m We we on may 39 humourimmanent anagramm 39 Liam vimmmtammimar Distal colatat 3 Faith m waku am mo it re Walt Wr Wd gim imm Sumrfmalismiwel wlmr meow 39 I momeerew Directional Terms uwmoruss 39 Isv39lbehemiswmnmnmum The ls inferior to the lungs 39 I TMWTWMsimmmmmn 1W mammoth immi mmamt 39 itrwaii m mrms 39 39 39 The My m mm to It Matr aimwm mkmh mambmlwmnthe I 39 winding and demanding mm The galme and mm colon m mourn The museum W lmrmmlwwww 39 39 39 anatomist mom momma he on m mm m the lungs nmimmmrpmwmrammmmk 5 13 omm new mm mam m mm to humans math mm to mesa sita is Mintyth mambammmutMWMTn Mammals TomWW mmhmmirbatiudeaa hmmgm 5w awiwmmammlmmmmowimmmm m rmmmsm Q 8272015 Directional Terms Describe the position of one body part relative to another Group in pairs with opposite meaning Anterior front and posterior back Only make sense when used to describe a position of one structure relative to another The esophagus is posterior to the trachea Knee is superior to the ankle Common Directional Terms 0 Anterior Nearer to the front of the body Posterior 39 Nearer to the back of the body 39SupenOr Toward the head 0 inferior Away from the head LATERALM MEDLALw s I m 3UPERIDH r NOR 1R Common Directional Terms I Proximal o Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk 39 Distal Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk mmml Farther from the mldline 39 Medial Nearer to the midline IMF Planes and Sections Frontalorcoronal plane Divides the body or an organ intoquot anterior front and 39 posterior back portions 1 Transverse plane I Divides the body or an organ into superior upper and inferior lower portions Also called crosssectional or horizontal plane 391 Ila2712015 Planes and Sections imaginary at surfaces that pass through the body parts 0 Sa ittal plane 39 A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides Mldsaglttal plane divides body into equal right and left sides I Pansagl ttal plane divides body into unequal right and left sides High mum WW Planes and Sections 4 Dblique plane 1 Passes through the body or an organ at an angle Between transverse and sagittal planes v Between transverse and frontal planes Sections Cut of the body made along a plane 17 827201 5 Body Cavities Body Cavities Spaces within the body that help protect separate 8 support internal organs Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Leaea SLWCLE39t39EA V c lb Maria 39SOIFsguleDmmD WM m in Flight lateral view bi Anterior view Thoracic Cavity Cranial Cavity and Vertebral Canal 39 Cranial cavity Formed by the cranial bones Protects the brain Vertebral canal Formed by bones of vertebral column 39 Contains the spinal cord Meninges 39 Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity 8 vertebral canal Also called the chest cavity Formed by I Ribs Muscles of the chest Sternum breastbone quotVertebral column thoracic portion a law lateral b Anteriw View al Righilatarai View lb Anterior View gt I IQ Thoracic Cavity Within the thoracic cavity Pericardial cavity A A 39 Fluidtilled space that surrounds ths Pleural cavity A a i 394 Two fluidfilled spaces that surround eac A Mediastinum Per icardial cavity Parietal pericardium Visceral pericardium Loit pleural cavity r Parietal pleura A Visceral pleura Diaphragm A A A a Anterior view oi thoracic cavity Mediastinum A Stemum Wembaml W Penicillinqu cavrrv Lori um Emmy goo loud tube A Vertebral column tummy LEFT PLEUHAL CAVITY interior View oi tramam action oi caviiy 8l272015 Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum 39Central part of the thoracic cavity Location 39 Between lungs From the sternum to the vertebral column From the first rib to the diaphragm 39 Diaphragm i Dome shaped muscle 39 Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity Extends from the diaphragm to the groin 39 Encircled by the abdominal wall and bones and muscles of the pelvis Divided into two portions 39 Abdominal cavity Stomach spleen liver gallbladder small and large intestines 39 Pelvic cavity Urinary bladder internal organs of reproductive system and portions of the large intestine he m 3L n Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes Serous Membrane 0A thin slippery doublelayered membrane Covers viscera of the thoracic and a bdominai pelvic cavities and lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen i Parts of the serous membrane 0 Parietal layer lines the wall of the cavities 39 Visceral layer I Covers the viscera within the cavities Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes Pleura 39 Serous membrane of the pleural cavities i Visceral pleura clings to surface of lungs Parietal pleura lines the chest wali Pericardium 39 Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity 39 Visceral pericardium covers the heart v Parietal pericardium lines the chest wali Peritoneum 39 Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity 39 Visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal cavity Parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall 8272015 Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes SUPEHlOFl Vertebral v column backbone Treehea A Sternurn breastbonei Spinal cord Aorta Heart Diaphragm POSTEHIOFI ANTEHEIOR iNFEFllCiH Sagittal section oi thoracic cavity Other Cavities wOral mouth cavity Ants weir meVL Contains the tongue and teeth rg it 5 39 Nasal cavit A r o Nose y MM quotOrbital cavities B a Contain the eyeballs a I39l tliddle ear cavities 39 Contain the small bones of the middle ear 39Synovial cavities I Found in freely moveable joints on 7 8272015 Ademi OP E39VlC Regions Abdominapelvic Regions 39Abclominopelvic Regions 39Usecl to describe the location of abdominal and pelvic organs quotiicTac Toe grid Two horizontal and two vertical lines partition the cavity Subcostal line top horizontal 39 Inferior to rib cage RIGHT Transtuharcular line bottom horizontaii HYFoCHonoaiac inferior to top of the hip bone REGION Midclavicular lines two vertical lines HiGH l A 0 Midpoint to clavicles and medial to the nipples LUMBAH REGION A LEFT HYPOCHONDHIAC REGION Subcostalllne LEFT LUMBA R REGION Tmnstuberculartino HiGHTiNoUINAL u LEFTlNGUlNAL liLlAC REGION lLlAC REGION Anterior view showing abdominopolvic regions Etairritant humlsmmau hum Quadrants Nine A bdominopelvic Regions Vertical and horizontal lines pass through the umbilicus I Right upper quadrant RUG Left upper quadrant LUQ Right lower quadrant R LQ Left lower quadrants LLQ Right and left hypochondrlac 0 Epigastric and Hypogastric pubic I Right and left lumbar Right and left inguinal iliac Umbilical Anterior View location of ahdomlnopowio quadrants LI cw LOW 3 ms of are 91 Medical Imaging quotTechniques and procedures used to create images of the human body Allow visualization of structures inside the body 9 Diagnosis of anatomical and physiological disorders Conventional radiography X rays have been in use since the late 1940 s 5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI High energy magnetic eld Protons in body fluid align with field 39 Color image on a video monitor I 20 and BD blueprint Relatively safe procedure Not used on patients containing metal 39 Used for differentiating normal and abnormal tissues 39 Turnors brain abnormalities blood flow 81271201 5 Radiography X rays 9 produce image of interior structures Lei clavicle Rib 39 inexpensive and quick 39 Hollow structures appear black or gray Do not pass easily through dense structure bone At low dose useful for soft tissue breast 39 Mammography breast Bone densitometry l blone density Lon rung He adiograph o the more in anterior view a 5 Og r mfg I No Weg7 4W w L Com puted Temography ComlputerbAssisted radiography CT iScan 3D structures 39 Visualize soft tissue in more detail than conventional radiography I Tissue intensities show varying degrees of gray Wholebody CT scan Lung and kidney cancers coronary artery disease memos POSTEF DR Computed momma scan at the thorax in hl orlor vmw39 939 f alnjlnnJIi 38272015 U Itfasgund Radionuclide Scanning Radionuclide Scanning Radioactive substance radionuclide given intravenously A Saw i Gamma rays detected by camera Leach A is Ultrasound Scanning High frequency sound waves 39 Sonogram Noninvasive painless no dyes 39 Pregnancy fetus F iehead I Radionuclide image displays on video monitor A A A y A A A 4 k A Color mtensrty represents uptake Q LVN Eire Singlephoto emission computerized tomography SPECT Specialized technique used for brain heart lungs and liver Hand Sonograrn of a fetus deesy of Andrew Joseph Torture and Demons Soier mmioeocnmnaaum um 39 dwwmtmnmomm Positron Emission Tomography PET Endoscopy AA recreate mcFLChSE cl 8 en i ANTEREDH 39 Endoscope 2 v Lighted instrument with lens image projected onto a monitor 39 Colonoscopy 39 interior of colon I La parosco py Organs in abd ominopeivic cavity Arthroscooy I interior of joint knee Positron positively charged particles emitting substance injected into the body 39 Collision between positrons and negatively charged electron in body tissues I Gamma rays produced 1 Computer constructed a PET scan image in color 1A AA AA AA A Used to study physiology of body 995ng A A A A mamas matabmism m i 3 interior View oi the colon as worn mi moi i A 3m militant mogumi shown by coionoeoopy 9831201 5 Introduction Since chemicals compose your body Chapter 2 The Chemical and all body activities are chemical in Level of Organization nature it is important to become familiar with the language and fundamental concepts of chemistry IVSV ng I m kwmwx 3960ch How Matter is organized PERIODIC TABLE or ELEMENTS y meal Suloi39li mr an 6W Chemical Elements Wear 3916 08 Mi 5 N 39All forms of matter are composed of chemical elements which are substances that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means 39Elements are given letter abbreviations called chemical symbols A A i E7 Trace elements are present in tiny amounts I 1 A U mum W 1 W retc elrei L25 5 ea un quot A A ll A 39 tneenenea Ac 13h Pa Egll ulpil Cm Bk Cf 5 Em MduNo 3 am 8312015 Two Representations of the y Structure of an Atom UHitS 01 matter Of all chemical elements are lawman 4 called atoms An element is a quantity of matter 0 Neutrons no composed of atoms of the same type Electrons er Structure of Atoms Nucleus Atoms contain C may Nucleus protons p neutrons 39Electrons e l surround the nucleus as a cloud electron shells are designated regions of the cloud wound akahm l 3 Electron cloud model of carbon 01 Electron shell model ol carbon Atomic Number and Shell Game IVIass Number 39Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus g m 39Mass number is the sum of the g 39 N V 39 uluulron a uleclron protons and neutrons in the nucleus w 5 14 A Iodine I Al mric number i Aloltlll lllzlse u average llidho ll all alallle Morris of a given uleitlenl lrl tiailonb r it 6 lutem MU 1 ftfh a A w and toot air m tam0 mole m Atomic Mass Mass is measured as a dalton atomic mass unit Masses of subatomic particles Neutron mass of 1008 daltons P roton mass of 1007 daltons iElectron has mass of 00005 dalton Atomic mass atomic weight is close to the mass number of the element39 5 most abundant isotope W ions Molecules amp Compounds Ions An atom that gave up or gained an electron Written with its chemical symbol and or H indigo Q Molecule W1 W Formed when atoms share Electrons Written as a molecular formula showing the number of atoms of each element H20 38312015 Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic Mass The atomic mass also called the atomic weight of an element is the average mass of all of its naturally occurring isotopes and reflects the relative abundance of isotopes with different mass numbers The mass of a single atom is slightly less than the sum of the masses of its neutrons protons and electrons because some mass less than 1 was lost when the atom39 5 components came together to form an atom Free Radicals A free radical is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell QM be damao a 4m nous 1 39 s a k 39They are unstable and highly reactive but can 00 MM become stable By giving up an electron 39By taking an electron from another molecule Antioxidants are substances that inactivate W oxygensderived free radicals Free Radicals Atmomonm quotquot quotq Antioxidant Behavior v on napalm l Electron quot 4quot FREE RADICAL Atomic Structure and Bonds interactions Animation Atomic Structure and theBasisof Bonds You must be connected to the internal to run this animation eronmmwc mnm 8312015 Chemical Bonds 39The atoms of a molecule are held together by forces of attraction called chemical bonds The likelihood that an atom will form a chemical bond with another atom depends on the number of electrons in its outermost shell also called the valence shell L VMSB Ionic Bonds When an atom loses or ains a valence electron ions are formed Figure 264a Positiver and negatively charged ions are attracted to one another I39Cations are positive charged ions that hav Ellie quotIquot one or more electrons they are electron donors 39Anions are n iatively charged ions that have picked us one or more electrOns that another atom has ost they are electron acceptors 216368 0 th cgic me e D became lDWK 1 each am o c bagh 3 vequot m tlt39bowwoix Q MM5 WOA 5quot 3 V or The ionic Bond Formation 39 neiacimn Atom lad ion 3 Sodium l valence electron a a tonic bond in sodium chloride NeCll mmammammumm f 39 Sah r39WLJVUKE qug ockv WM m d Pacldng of ions in a crystal of sodium chloride HtH H2 0 a o to bl fl go iocm A h 0 H20 titanium flocks M Wm 0 more 1 2quot J831 1201 5 Covalent Bonds quotCovalent bonds are formed by the atoms of molecules sharin j one two or three pairs of their valence electrons 39Covalent bonds are common and are the strongest chemical bonds in the body Single double or triple covalent bonds are formed by sharing one two or three pairs of electrons respectively Covalent bonds may be nonpolar or polar 39 In a nonpol ar covalent bond atoms share the electrons equally one atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom Polar Covalent Bonds Formed by the unequal sharing of electrW be ween atoms 0 Example In a water molecule oxygen attracts the hydrogen electrons more strongly 39 Oxygen has greater electronegativity as indicated by the negative Greek delta sign Hydrogen Bonds Approximately 5 as strong as covalent bonds Useful in establishing links between molecules or between distant parts of a very large molecule Form large 3D molecules which are often held together by a large number of hydrogen bonds N Hydrogen Bonds Are weak intermolecular bonds Help determine tihreea 39 Result from attraction of servings a links between molecules dimensional shape of some molecules oppositely charged parts of molecules rather than from sharing of electrons In water provides considerable cohesion which creates a very high surface tension Chemical Bonds Interactions Animation Chemical Bondin You must be connected to the internal to run this animation 8312015 fie311201 5 Chemical Reactions Forms of Energy and Chemical Reactions 39Occur when new boncls form andor old bonds 3 g are broken Energy IS the capacrty to do work Metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions in the WW 39Kinet ic energy is the energy A 39 WHO I l a i Law of conservation of energy assomated With matter in motion 39The total mass of reactants equals the total mass quot quot39 quot of the products 39Pot ntial energy is energy stored by matter due to its position Energy Transfer in Chemical Reactions Activation Energy An exergonic reaction is one in which the bond Energy required being broken has more energy than the one to break chemical M formed so that extra energy is released usually bonds in the as heat occurs during catabolism of focal reactant molecules molecules so a An endergonic reaction is just the opposite and reaCti On can Start thus requires that enerzy A be added usually from a molecule canerm to form a bond as in bonding amino acid mo ecul es together to form proteins Energy absorbed to start reaction Energy released as new bonds form A Jaue mattered Progress oi the reaction A Factors that Cause a Collision 81 Chemical Reaction Concentration Tem pe ratu re 6 catalysts chemical compounds that speed up cherr ical reactions by lowering the activation energ needed for a reaction to occur 1 w VJ if A catalyst does not alter the difference in potential energy between the reactants and products It only lowers the a mom nt of energy needed to get the reaction started A catalyst helps to properly orient the colliding particles of matter so that a reaction can occur at a lower collision speed 0 The catalyst itself is unchanged at the end of the reaction it is often realised many times 0 st Lgfa c a W 3cm 32 C j 3933 c 08 Types of Chemical Reactions 395 nthes39S reactions i Anabolism A B gt AB D composition reactions A3 A a 39Exxchange reactions AB CD AD C3 Reversibe reactions 39AC A C C atabolism D Amado gentlenod Catalysts amp Chemical Reactions A f Activation energy needed without catalyst 1t Activation energy needed with catalyst Progresaoireaotion Types of Reactions interactions Animation 39 Types of Reactions and Equilibrium You must be connected to the internet to run this animation Copyright 2010 John wuy a am in 83 1 201 5 Inorganic Compounds norganic compounds Usually lack carbon 1 HEN3k Uquot IquotAre structurally simple molecules Organic compounds 39Alwavs contain carbon 39Usually contain hydrogen Alwa ys have covalent bonds Usually are large molecules Polar Water Molecules Hydrated chloride ion 58312015 VVater ls the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living39systems Water s most important property is w the uneven sharing of valence electrons IEnables reactants to collide to form products 4cm quotI emfth k was go LKWS j r Water Interactions Animation Polarity and Solubilitv of Molecules You must be connected to the internet to run this animation WMW IDEM WMISWJU Water and Fluid Flow Interactions Animation I Water and Fluid Flow You must be connected to the internet to run this animation 20m John Wllcy It Sons Inc High Heat Capacity of Water quotWater has a high heat capacity It can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a modest change in its own temperature This property is due to the large number of hydrogen ions water Heat of vaporization is also high 39Amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gas Evaporation of water from the skin removes large amounts of heat q 8312015 Water as a Solvent 39ln a solution the solvent dissolves the solute W 39Substances which contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water are hydrophilic while substances which contain nonepo ar covalent bonds are hydrophobic 39The polarity of water and its bent shape allow it to interact with several neighboring ions or molecules Water s role as a solvent makes it essential for health and survival Three Common Mixtures A mixture is a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bondsi Solution a substance called the solvent dissolves another substance called the solute Usually there is more solvent than solute in a solution A colloid ditlers from a solution mainly on the basis u o of the size of its particles with the particles in the J7 colloid being large enough to scatter light rSuspension the suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time but it will eventually settle out M an rf Faq Concentration The concentration of a molecule is a way of stating the amount of that molecule in solution 39 39Percent gives the relative mass of a solute found in a given volume of solution 39A m e is the name for the number of atoms in an atomic weight of that element or the number of molecules in a molecular weight of that type of molecule with the molecular weight being the sum of all the atomic weights of the atoms that make up the molecule Concept of pH pH scale runs from 0 to 14 concentration of H in molesliter 39pH 016 is neutral 39 distilled water concentration of OH and are equal 39pH below 7 is acidic H gt OH1 I39pH above 7 is alkaline AH lt OHl pll is a logarithmic scale Example a cf angle of two or three pIl units pH of 1 contains 10x10100 more H than pH of 3 39 pH of 8 contains 10x10x101000 more H than pH of 11 351831201 5 The pH Scale Gill moiesillterl 3 jf 39 EH f pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 B 7 B 9 10 11 12 13 14 H INCREASINGLY A NEUTRAL A INCREASINGLY M 1101ch BASlC ALKALlN E decehmwmit 31min lh m The pH Scale Neutral Acid Base r l B 9 10 131 12 4 5 6 13 14 i 2 i 39 i 39 1 Lemon JUN Cabbage Water A ctr Milk of Magnesia move Hydrochloric A Acid Milk Lei 6 3 11 8312015 Dissociation of Acids Bases amp Salts Acids Bases amp Salt HCl KOH KCl z 39SA W3 WA Salt 3958 WA WB Salt SA SB Water Salt HM No0 HZD a Acid be a y y a w l WC 98 H 39W i Clam nowX Red b M Maintaining pH Buffer Systems Midis Bases and Buffers lnteractions Animation Lab manxoric l Wt Suit Lu 6 The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained fairl 00 st nt by buffer systems which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base 39Comert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases Examp le carbonic acidbio rb nate buffer m You must be connected to the internet to run this animation 7 W 5 4 k mug M V Ema ax Wmmmmm Maw was Eh Acids anduB E 1 Carbon amp lts Functional Groups 39lVlany functional groups can attach to carbon skevieton Esters amino carboxyl phosphate groups 39Very large molecules are called macromolecules or polymers if all the monomer sUbunits are similar lsomers have the same molecular ormulas but different structures glucose amp fructose are both C6H 1206 SACtZ THARIDES Sugars 1 2i 3 4 7 M Dehydration Synthesis the rumination of large molecules from small ones lay retrieving a water molecule we lsccowb mggwfc Elig w rm WM 9quot WM loadam fjchabe o A A 4 MM W mom i Carbohydrates C arboh dra tes provide most of the energy needed for life and include sugars starches glycogen and cellulose 39Sorne carbohydrates are converted to other substances which are used to build structures and to generate ATP Other carbohydrates function as food reserves 39Carbohydrates are divided into three major groups based on their size monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides i l 8033 Wimlha oi Clicksk0 L a U wimcomem313 lavJchxeh of Eva Out t Cunt kw harides QH M o n osa cc HUGH C DNA 0H Deoxyribosa alPanloses g 3 A A Organic compounds ending in use Sugars are made up of the elements C and 0 u sugars the ratio of H to 0 is usrmlly 21 Mouosaccharide a single sugar I39noiecule simple sugar Glucose Fructose Disacclraricle 21 double sugar two simple sugars joined Lactose Sucrose Maltose Polysaccharide mauy simple sugar molecules joined together quotear0 19 3m L043 Glycogen a poly mar of glucose molecules 9 ask grew Siarches stored in plant cells Carbohydrate another name for cmnplex sugars and starches H Celluloseimplant cell walls Lom H OH Galactose lib Hexoses 4 Sf A Glucose 5 81312015 8312015 Disaccharides Polysaccharides Combining 2 monosaccharides by dehydration 39POlVEBCChaFidES are the l A 4 A A A H lar est carboh drates and synthesrs releases a water molecule magy contain handreds of sucrose glucose 8 fructose mon saCCharides a l maltose glucose 8 glucose 39The pnnc39pa39 p039V53CCha de A in the human body IS lactose glucose 8 galactose glycogen which is stored in the liver or skeletal muscles A woos When blood sugar level De wrench drops the liver hyd rolyzes s niheeis M l A glycogen to yield glucose which is released from the liver into the blood Glucose monomer Glucose Fructose U if A V A Sucrose Water loosen lemon Grandson Lipids HUS Fats oils1 waxes chplestemlg 39 Lipids like carbohydrates contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen but unlike carbohydrates they do not have a 21 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen 1 Organic COIIlpOIIIICiS cmnpnsed nftlieelenienls C andO like sugars 39Thev have few polar covalent bonds Why a fc lo A f p p p in A I Are hydrophobic in lipids die rind of H in 0 is greater llnn 2l lllliliie sugars Are mostly insoluble in polar solvents such as water Trelrcenderhe lllllSl cnnnnnn lipid is composed nfnne glycerol and liner 39Comb39m quotth mote impme39ns f rt a 5l rt b39ood q VA Q D I lnnrnnds line complex lipids are fennel r ia Dehydration Synthesis gm Hi Complex lipids are broken down l39iil Hydrolysis 4 i was nighCerides Triglycerides are the most plentiful lipids in the body and provide protection insulation and energy both immediate and stored quotAt room temperature triglycerides maybe either solid fats or liquid oils buff mks Mace Triglycerides provide more than twice as uch energy per gram as either carbohydrates or proteins Triglyceride storage is virtually unlimited Excess dietary carbohydrates proteins fats and oils wi l be deposited in adipose tissue as triglycerides Phospholipids we call P7ospholipids are important 9 36 g rw membrane components Pmqu They are amphipathic with both polar and nonpolar regions 39A polar head 39A phosphate group PO46 amp glycerol molecule 39Forms hydrogen bonds with water 392 nonpolar fatty acid tails lnteract only with lipids 393Jv ampih iqu1i513k 455VK w rimm 39 r 39 39 Triglycerides wagnu 0 i 15 b Ester rinkage Saturated Triglyceride lat molecule Phospholipid bl Simpli ed we in dmw a Mama 2 all Murmurs If a Palmitic add leic acid 7H33C300H Monounsaturated gsrearic acid 017143500011 y Saturated inaponlonoune mmb quotl 8312015 1R 1 Micelle 9 Four Ring Structure of Steroids Hydrocarbon tall Ho l Hydroxyl group a Cholesterol b Estradiol an estrogen or lemale sex hormone in Testosterone a male sex hormone A is Codisol a A K MK mil erg A Rowlku chEuA M be wired Gk 51 Am 8312015 Steroids Steroids have four rim 5 of carbon atoms Steroids include lquotSex hormones 39Bile salts Some vitamins i SoleJP R 5b E its can him 9 quotquotQ w g quot or QM WE mm 39Cholesterol with cholesterol serving as an important component of cell membranes and as starting material for synthesizing other steroids PROTEINS polypeptides organic oompotmds made up of polymers of Amino Acids Amino Acid w the basic building block of a protein contrams a control C arisen with an amino samurai a cal boxy group R group and a single Hydrogen Composed ofth clcnmnts 21 IL H an f x 5quot the amino group NH the carbortyal group OOH i the R group sideshow varies can be any of 10 different molecular Arin in ride Bond the bond games the omboxyl group of one amino amid with the Mauro 23 p of the next aniline acid Polypeptide a manyquot amino acids joined together by peptide bonds proteins Assembled by combinihrg amino acids monomers into peptide polymers via dehydration synthesis E Disscm blsd 13y breaking peptide bonds between amino acids via hydrolysis A A i w m Amino Acids Central carbon Amino R Carboxyllc group group acid group I A A A A l l VJ i ckwog 0 M0 cacao Hui Formation of a Dipeptide Bond 39Dipeptides formed from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond Formed by dehydration synthesis 39Polypeptide chains contain 10 to 2000 amino acids A 39uiiqeponda it 5 N c dwu 0 f a H Glycyiaianine a dipeptldai Dehydration WWW A wagaumMMngvmm uAqunmm nu mud Ha H T Hydrolysis mm jdhnm Ir 5am triallme 1831201 5 Proteins Constructed from W combinations of 20 wimmgm39 riwgggzggm amino acids 39Dipeptides formed from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond Polypeptide chains formed from 10 to 2000 amino acids A Imami quot Wm bile Tom39svamaiiva amino acids 2 Protein Structural Organization Levels of structural orga tion includes Em dc aprimar a l quota quotNE 0 00quot 39Secondvary J Slush V 5 3 k lM H bonds l 39Tertiary S We Suldiwg 0E fruit wl l Quaternary gtQ moo a Vro cejws WW5 39The resulting shape of the protein greatly influences its ability to recognize and bind to other molecules 39Denaturati n of a protein by a hostile environment Causes loss of its characteristic eand t39on l 0 A s an L smo bad U43 MUW Q abate W G 17 Catalysts amp Chemical Reactions 1L T Activation energy needed without catalyst Activation energy needed with catalyst A jaua leuuamd Progress of reaction 8312015 Enzymes 39Catalysts in living cells are called enzymes Enzymes are highly speci ic in terms of the substrate with which t ey react IEnzymes are subject to a variety of cellular controls 39Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by increasing frequency of collisions lowering activation energy and properly orienting colliding molecules CL gemz wd LE who 013 WC mZv L Catalysts amp Chemical Reactions Enzwnuuaubstrmul gamma step 2 nw Aided by enzyum ii mama mime to im macaw am i Sammie am in aciiwsiia Manama i atop a Predict new imm mm entire promos can new be mum SU BSTRATJE REACTlONS su rig to the tune Stairway to Heaven eat your heart out Robert Plant There s a protein that39s made to introduce two substrates And it speeds up a substrate reaction Now reactants one and two are in love this is true But our protein helps to introduce them Oooo and they make neat products When an enzyme brings Mo substrates together Enzymes have active sites that hold substrates just right When creating an enzymesubstrate complex it is simple you see lock and key theory When reactants stick to the enzyme When reactions are done all are changed except one And the thing that won39t change is the enzyme Sometimes an enzyme needs a helper a coenzyme To help it do what must be done It helps the enzyme speed up substrate reactions Their common names are Vitamins 6 8312015 Enzymes lnteractions Animation Enzyme Functions and Ail ow landsEns two 25L aquot all You must be connected to the internet to run this animation WNW WME 5m Inc 0000 and it makes me wonder What would happen without protein enzymes So stick this in your head without enzymes youquot re dead And the same if you don39 t have coenzymes A pH high or law will break peptides you know In a process called denaturation lt s the same thing with heat but cold enzymes drag their feet You can die from a too slow reaction Oman and it makes me wonder About enzymes and cellular regulation if there39 5 more substrates than enzymes in a reaction lt39 5 called the point of saturation With more substrates than an enzyme can handle Substrate reactions start to level Life would be quite patheticAWithout saturation kinetics And a process Sfoell regulation Dooo it really makes me wonder EnZymes speed substrate reactions 8312015 H H DNA and RNA Purines and ihes 39 Nucleic acids are huge organic molecules that contain ca rbOn hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and phosphorus Ir a a 4 i I I 39 Deoxynbonucleic ocrd DNA forms the genetic code msrde each cell and thereby regulates most of the activities that take place in our cells throughout a lifetime gelg pvoPltmlz 39 Ribonucleic acid RNA relays instructions from the genes in the cell 5 nucleus to guide each cellI s assembly of amino acids into proteins by the ribosomes 39 The basic units of nucleic acids are nucleotides composed of a nitrogenous base a pentose sugar and a phos A hate group wgvxmig 39 391 392 I l I A I 39 Mannie u Nucleic Acids DNA 9 to Nucleic Acids DNA strum 2 m39s Wmm mgrand WWW um 80 on j p312015 RNA Structure Adenosine Triphosphate ATP 39Differs from DNA g u Temporary S39f gle grandee molecular I I Ribose sugar replaces deoxynbose sugar storage of ener Av j Wigs nitrogenous base rep aces th mine as it is being 39Types of RNA within the cell each with a transferred from mm specific function exergonic I 39Messenger RNA Gate bUOIIC mm 39Rihosomal RNA l eaCtilons to A A cellular activities r mm i m pquot A o Tra n r R Adenosine iriphosphate ATP Er39tVWL W A Formation amp Usage of ATP l low ATP Drives Cellular Work ll drol sis of ATP removal of terminal WWW phosphate group by enzyme ATPase 39Releases energy leaves ADP ad enosine diphosphate Syn th sis of ATP 39 Enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the addition of the terminal phosphate group to ADP A i a OEnergy from 1 glucose molecule is used during lmy mmme l Lu wits both anaerobic and aerobic respiration to create WWW A 6M Lo 6 to 38 molecules of ATP Fr 4 led were W ho r r mum Preath V A 58 M Medium 913201 5 CELL THEORY The three tenets to cell theory are Chapter 3 1 All organisms are composed of one or The Cellular Level of more cells Organization 2 The cell is the most basic unit of MLEL 09 g l a structure function and organization in L l muss MM Ema all organisms M i of the 0 Webolm 3 All cells arise from pre existing living M at cells C 104 lowly BIG lDEAS lN CELL BIOLOGY A Generalized Cell I Genetic information stored in onedimensional chemical sequences in DNA l a s m a m ra n e A occasionally RNA is duplicated and passed on to daughter cells Onedimensional chemical sequences stored in DNA code for both the linear fo rm 5 e CE I39S 0 e r b 0 U n a ry t l w sequences and threeedimensional structures of Rides and proteins and ultimately hw h39l emflll md39r 1 u A l a Bus t em EM CE 53 was 39separates the cell s Internal enmronment 7 a Macromolecular structures assemble from subunits A Membranes separate cells from their external environment form biochemically fro ml D UtS l d e e in r0 in e A a 5 distinct compartments in eukaryotic cells and grow by expansion of preexisting r M01 5 inch st membranes 39IS a selective barrier to Signal receptor interactions target cellular constituents to their correct 4 I y A g u A locations 39plays a role In cellular communication Many cellular constituents move by diffusion but energy consuming pumps and motors move some constituents and whole cells 39 Receptors and signaling mechanisms allow cells to adapt to environmental conditions 39 Molecular feedback mechanisms control molecular composition growth and differentiation A Generalized Cell 2 Cyt0plasm 39all the cellular contents between the N g plasma membrane and the nucleus d gtncytosol the fluid portion mostly water mit Morganelles subcellular structures having coat toil characteristic shapes and specific A functions m st cth Am t Mm an L5 afobwkt be UJ we grew Generalized Body Cell Wmtm Microlubuia m W A W remittali i nutrilwdiam Eamon Micrmmi V Commentak mr J Parmtrictar A armorial Cemriol es MEMBHWE Secretory 394 quot transom M 3mm if r 932015 A Generalized Cell 3 Nucleus 9 CM WWW large organelle that contains DNA 39contains chromosomes each of which consists of a single molecule of DNA and associated proteins a chromosome contains thousands of hereditary units called genes iC uz QQO s axise 08 53 a 3 Plasma Membrane quotFlexible yet sturdy loarrier The uid mosaic model the arrangement of molecules within the membrane resembles a sea of lipids containing many types of proteins 39The lipids act as a barrier to certain substances The proteins act as gatekeepers to certain molecules and ions 0 mwo am w snark one o9 calls Mt Erick aims oer2 CL s kvmwc 9 no 9 932015 l w a w Structure ofa Membrane Membrane Functions A a a interactions Animation Consists of a li id bilo er made up of phospholipids cholesterol and glycolipids lntegral proteins extend into or through the lipid b i layer Transmemhrane proteins most integral proteins span the entire lipid bilayer iPeripheral proteins attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane do not extend through it Membrane Functions You must be connected to the internet to run this animation 11 im cam 6 Jossm in Structure of the Plasma Membrane a Structure of a Membrane a WW 39Glycoproteins membrane proteins with a N carbohydrate group attached that protrudes into the extracellular fluid Glycocalyx the sugary coatingquot surrounding the membrane and made up of the carbohydrate portions of the glycolipids and glycoproteins 9 3201 5 Functions of Membrane proteins Functions of Membrane Proteins Plasma membrane acytosm 3 Some integral proteins are ion channels ion channel Integral Transporters selectively move substances 39 39 through the membrane A quotquot i waterHim pom Moi plasma membranes include Receptors for cellular recognition a ligand IS a molecule that binds with a receptor Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions quotOthers act as cellaidentity markers Carrier integral Transports specific subatnnoes 31 across i mmbmm by changing shape For examine amino acids 139 new at In synthesize new 39 premium or ar colla via carriers Carnnr mutants are also known as transmrmfs acceptor Integral Humanist specific ligand 3 and aliens Gail s lunclion in some way For example antidiumm 39 hormone binds to receptors in the kidneys and changes the water permeability oi comm plasma membranes Functions of Membrane Proteins Membrane Permeability ihgum on mmi mw imm The cell is either permeable or impermeable to i2 3 99 Outsiders dependmoo M l quot39 4 i Lara Ce rtain SUbStances 03 VS usd39lf it a 1m atmates i i i A 39The lipid bilayer is permeable to oxygen gamble dmaochandn lactoseth i A 1 9 r A mmm A carbon dioxrde water and steroids but quotquot impermeable to glucose megawatt mmmpgwe transmembrane proteins act as channels and pan p ehmomm transporters to assist the entrance of certain substances for example glucose and ions Bali identity marker lWPWM l D m m your colic From anyone me unless you are an MM An important lm of such mome m the major WC W Passive vs Active Processes DIfoSIon 9110 N Gianu A A 39 Steepness of concentration Passwe processes substances move gradient across cell membranes without the in ut 39TEmperaw re A A A A Mass ofdiffusing substance of an energy use the klinetic en ergy of Surface area individual molecules or ions th39 in g quot Di usiondistam 39Active processes a cell uses ener y primarily from the breakdown of ATP to move a substance across the membrane ie a ainst a concentration gradient Com L k dj Q EV C Beginning Intermediate Equilibrium a b 0 Simple Diffusion Channel Mediated Facilitated ChannelaMediated Facilitated Diffusion of Potassium Diffusion and CarriereMediated Facilitated Diffusion ions Through A Gated ilt Channel Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Exlraceilular uid mos av Plasma membrane 39 Cytosoi Conoentration c gradient G I a g 9 not Details of the K channel em a 8 Mobil Wok n 932015 Carrier Mediated Facilitated Diffusion of Glucose 4 A A 39 Across A Plasma Membrane osmos ls 39 39 39 llet movement of water through a selectively A or 4 permeable membrane from an area of high 69 concentration of water lower concentration of VPquot solutes to one of lower concentration of water Water can pass through plasma membrane in 2 ways through lipid bilayer by simple diffusion through aquaporins integral membrane proteins I a w l h j rearms 39 oom r39ic Q c tov e311 Qyw gko r gt Cyiosoi mi i Glucose I I it OZBWo 09 quot av So 3 Principle of Osmosis Tonicity and its Effect on RBCS isotonic Hypoionic Hyperionic Applied pressure a i A solution gsmo c pmggufa SOlUthH SOlUliO m a a m r i Let arm Flight nrm Wu g AWaier molecula Osmosis Solute molecule Movement due to hydrostatic pressure Seiamwel y permeable membrane a Siariing conditions bi Equilibrium c Restoring starting conditions 1 A Normal HBC shape FiBC undergoes FIBC undergoes A hemolysis crenaiion Tb Scanning eieciron mlcrographs alt 15000x sher H6105 to u Wine
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