Week 2 notes
Popular in Planet Earth's geological environment
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101-01 at Ball State University taught by Kirsten N. Nicholson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth's geological environment in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
GEOL 101 831 92 and 94 Plate Tectonics I Geophysics is the study of the earth s makeup Earth s diameter is 12742 km a Core the middle of the earth 1 inner core 90 Fe iron and 9 Ni nickel p 13 gmcm3 cubed so basically a typical dice made out of solid iron radius 1200 km solid 2 outer core 90 Fe 9 Ni and 1ish S sulfur p107 gmcm3 2250 km think made of liquid so seismic waves don t travel through it b Mantle the middle layer of the earth also the thickest layer 346 Fe 295 0 oxygen 152 Si silicon 127 Mg magnesium and 8 other p 45 gmcm3 so out of a dice out of a common rock 3000 km thick mostly solid c Moho the transition from the crust and the mantle d Crust the outermost region of the earth 1 oceanic crust 67 km thick p 3 gmcm3 made of basalt 200 million years old 2 continental crust 35 km thick on average p27 gmcm3 several billion years old e Lithosphere the crust and the upper part of the mantle 150 km thick tectonic plates rigid gt p is rho the greek symbol for density f Asthenosphere the rest of mantle quasi liquid it s so tight packed that it can t really move like a liquid seismic waves CAN pass through 11 Plate tectonics any process that can deform the lithosphere processes associated with creation destruction and movement of tectonic plates a Tectonic plates also called lithospheric plate make landforms mountains oceanic basins continents etc there are 13 main plates b Continental drift plates move over the asthenosphere carrying the continents with them 1 Alfred Wegener 1926 found matching fossils on coasts of S America and Africa 2 Other eXplanations for this finding were island hopping isthmian links and rafting c Sea oor spreading 2 midocean ridges MOR spread apart allowing magma to fill the space and create new crust This theory was proposed by Harry Hess in 1920 d Paleomagnetism studying the magnetic signatures of rocks to find out where they were formed the rock maintains its original magnetic signal once the magma it is formed from cools 1 Magnetic reversals when the earth s magnetic field has reversed 2 Magnetic reversals are able to be tracked by the mirrored magnetic signatures of rocks at MORs gt p is rho the greek symbol for density III Movement and types of tectonic plates Tectonic plates move because of convection in the mantle where hotter parts are pushed away from the core and the cooler parts sink back down to the core a Continental and oceanic are the two types of tectonic plates b Slab pull oceanic plates that are sinking into the mantle because they cool and are denser than the mantle below them This causes the other side of the plate to move and pull away from the other plate that it is next to c Ridge push after a slab pull has occurred hot material is pushed up into the ridge that is created on the side of the plate opposite where it is sinking d Convergence is where two plates meet and a triple junction is where three plates meet like Japan transform boundaries are where two plates slide easily past San Andreas Fault and divergent plates are pulling apart e Subduction when one plate is pushed under another most oceanic plates are subducted under continental plates f Examples of plate boundaries 1 Continental continental Himalayas 2 Oceanic oceanic most of the Ring of Fire the older plate is subducted and volcanoes always form 3 Continental oceanic Mount Saint Helen g Hot spots are where there volcanoes form in the middle of a plate from convection occurring in the mantle that is not strong enough to break the plate Hawaii gt p is rho the greek symbol for density Minerals 1 Mineral an elemental or chemical compound that is solid is crystalline and is formed by a geological process rocks are typically made up of many different minerals a Element a substance that is made up of all of one type of atom 1 The two main elements that make minerals are Fe iron and C carbon b Compound a mineral that is made out of more than one element NaCl sodium chloride table salt c Unit cells the smallest part of a geometric structure that repeats to form the crystalline structure of a mineral 11 Ways to identify a mineral a Moh scale of hardness a 1 to 10 scale talc is 1 and diamond is 10 1 Fingemail can scratch up to 25 2 A penny can scratch up to 3 3 A good pocket knife blade can scratch up to 55 b Color streak luster shine density cleavage tiny ridges in the mineral hardness and crystal formation to identify the mineral gt p is rho the greek symbol for density
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