Gender in the Economy Notes 9/1 and 9/3
Gender in the Economy Notes 9/1 and 9/3 Econ 211-003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austin Notetaker on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Econ 211-003 at Colorado State University taught by Christina Curley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Gender in the Economy in Economcs at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Gender in the Economy Notes 9115 and 9315 Notes from 91 Nature vs Nurture 0 Differences in gender could be due to nature or nurture Nature being from a biology and nurture being from a cultural upbringing 0 Social structural approach 0 Biology puts limits on behavior 0 Biology does not fully determine behavior 0 Overall culture will always have an influence on gender identity while biology may not necessarily o Adaptation o technological progress reduces biological constraints in the workplace I Meaning the more advanced the technology tools the easier it is for anyone to use the tools therefore opening up manual jobs The Nature of Males and Females o Sociobiology the study of the biological reasons of social behavior 0 Some behaviors exhibit origins in evolution 0 Sociobiological explanation of qualities desired in a mate 0 Women search for good providers 0 Men search for childbearers amp homemakers 0 Result of selection pressures people with the above desired qualities will have greater success at reproduction thus passing on their genetic assets to their children 0 Opinions on what is desirable in a mate have changed as time has gone on o Sociobiological views assert that reproductive success is the most important thing when looking for a mate Gender in the Economy Notes from 93 Factoring Influencing Gender Status 0 Status has changed over time and throughout societies 0 Certain technology can lead to either more or less division among genders Gender Roles amp Economic Development 0 Graph on PowerPoint Ushaped relationship between Women s Participation in the labor force and economic development 0 Dip in women s participation during the industrial era The US Experience 0 From the beginning of the United States not Native Americans 0 Beginning in 1776 o Preindustrial Period 0 Colonial America Necessities were produced in the household For average families not the wealthy o Specialization between genders I Men agriculture I Women housework and light manufacturing candles soap butter etc I Everyone did something productive o Industrialization 0 Young women worked in factories until married or after if they were poor 0 Married women s duties were strictly reduced to the care of children and the home not in the workplace 0 More clear division between female domestic sphere and male public sphere 0 Evolution of the family and women s labor force participation 0 Labor Force Participation Rate LFPR number of people in the labor forcepopulation over the age of 16 0 19th Century I The family has shifted from a production unit to a consumption unit No longer producing home goods instead they re purchasing the goods I Rise of traditional family Men work women stay home I Wife and children financially dependent on husband I Poor and single women had a need to stay in the work force 0 Technological Progress 0 Household appliances I Appliances improves making it easier to carry out household duties 0 Washing clothes more often because it was easier there was a need to compensate for ease by doing chores more frequently 0 Preparing more elaborate meals 0 Devaluation of work performed at home because appliances made it easier 0 Fertility of kids a woman has I Agricultural production children could help out and contribute economically I After industrialization children became more costly to have child labor laws in place I Family Wage came about result of unionization meant that men could now earn enough that women and children didn t have to work anymore I Fertility fell during the 1800 s to the 1900 s The more developed a country is the lower the fertility rate 20th Century 0 Women fighting for their right to vote 0 Household shrinking Children at school not at home producing goods 0 Increased demand for clerical workers secretaries receptionists typists o Resulted in increased amount of women entering the work force 0 Women s LFPR was still low until the 40 s 0 Marriage bars only single women can work get hired 1940 s 0 WII amp Shortage of female workers 0 Low birth rates in 20 s and 30 s lead to less young workers in the 40 s 0 Increase in education 0 Women marrying at younger ages war time wanting to get pregnant before their husbandleaves 0 WII men fighting women taking over male jobs 0 Because of shortage married women were pulled into the labor market 0 Occupation and earnings of women in the 19th century early 20th century 0 women dominated service jobs domestic like a nanny or a teacher 0 Professional jobs I Men managers and proprietors I Women teachers and nurses 0 Growth of female clerical jobs Gender Pay Ratio 0 Percentage Women making what percent of what men are making 0 1815 29 o 1890 46 o 1930 56 0 Now 77