Week 2 notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
HIST 150 Week 2 Notes 1001 and 1003 Ancient Egypt Egypt was also called Kemet sometimes spelled Kamut I Settlements began forming near the Nile River Delta near the Mediterranean Sea around 5000 BCE before the common era People called this land the black land in the red land black fertile soil inn the desert a The god Osiris is the god of agriculture and he was killed by his brother His sister and wife Isis mummi ed him and brought him back to life 1 Incest was fairly common especially among royals to keep the bloodline purely divine b Farmers began to ght over the land to plant crops and herd cattle and sheep This divided into Upper and Lower Egypt Upper was actually south of Lower because the Nile ows upward from the south North and South Egypt were united by the rst pharaoh Narmer c The Nile oods from September through November so crops were planted on November and harvested before September 1 People noticed this was like clockwork so they recorded it and made the rst calendar based on the oods and the stars and moon II Pharaohs were viewed as the descendants of gods of as gods themselves a Pharaohs were needed to keep order and to stop ghts from breaking out between farmers as well as protecting them from invaders 1 They were thought to be the son or reincarnation of Horus god of justice and son of Osiris or AmonRa suncreator god 2 AmonRa was viewed as god but also as his son like the Christian views of Jesus and God 111 Old Middle and New Egypt a Old Kingdom Egypt 26862181 BCE 1 Pyramids were build over pharaohs graves but they were too obvious to grave robbers so they stopped building them 2 Old Egypt ended when desert people red people invaded b Middle Kingdom Egypt 20551650 BCE l Hieroglyphics were used to keep records record the calendar king s decrees and were like pictographs but could combine to form new words or phrases 2 Priests and scribes knew how to read hieroglyphics 3 The hierarchy during this time was Pharaoh priests scribes merchants then peasants 4 The scribe Ptah Hotep wrote about how women could have property if it was given to them in a will Their purpose in the home was to have children to be laborers in their father s eld c New Kingdom Egypt 15501069 BCE l Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh who ruled for many years she was the wife of the pharaoh who had just died and his son wasn t old enough to rule She also gave out workfare to all the workers families 300 liters of wheat and some barley for beer every month IV After the Old Middle and New Kingdoms the pharaohs were from Kush 7 1265 6 BCE until the Assyrians from Nineveh Shang China I Shang China was the basis for the Chinese culture as it is today Some hints at Shang China are seen in some presentday Chinese symbols a Before the Shang came farmers had inhabited the area of the Yellow River Valley because the soil was fertile 1 These people were using tone age tools and weapons stone blades heads and wooden handles b They planted things like millet and had pigs and goats c When the Shang came from the Ordos Desert 1 The Shang had weapons and tools with bronze blades and heads bronze age and chariots and took over the farmers 11 Shangdi is the supreme god of the Chinese a The emperor of the Shang would marry the Yellow River to bring fertile soil but because the marriage could not be consummated a peasant would be drowned the river b Once the peasants were asked to pay too much tribute Wu of Zhou rebelled around 1122 BCE 1 Zhou made a centralized Northern China 2 The Zhou dynasty lasted until around the 7 00s BCE when the warlords who lived in the countryside rebelled against the Zhou Vedic India I The first Indian culture was called the Harappan Culture from 2000sl700s BCE There were small gaps between rich and poor a The main thing that was grown in India was trees for lumber which was then traded to the Middle East There was a climate change that pushed the monsoons east out of India b 15 OOslOOOs BCE was fairly chaotic It was during this time when they wrote the Rig Veda which was a compilation of old stories and stories of creation that were written in Sanskrit predecessor of Hindi c Indra was the skyfather god Agni god of re and Mitra god of justice 11 800400 BCE The Upanishads began Hinduism They said that the world is not the ultimate reality of life a Brahman is the in nite god that was the world and everything beyond it He came in many forms God came as Jesus but Brahman came as many different avatars l Brahma was the creator god Vishnu was the preserver god Shiva was the god of destruction 2 Brahman came as Rama the just king and as Krishna more peaceful b DeviShaktiPurgaParvati is names of the goddess version of Brahman l Parvati and Shiva were married but the same and had a son named Ganesha who was the god of all things prosperous c Atman was the spark of life in all humans and animals that was eternal and not created of destroyed 1 Since Atman was not destroyed it would move to another body after the first died reincarnation 2 If the person had good karma their life was guided b Brahman they were reincarnated as a human or as a revered animal but if they had bad karma they were reincarnated as a tiger who could be hunted by the peasants or another lower animal d The caste system 600 BCE was how people were classi ed by their birth First were Brahmin priests gt Kshatriya kings princes warriors gt Vaishya merchants landowners gt Shudra laborers gt Dasa slaves gt outcaste foreigners who were lower than slaves III Yogis were the founders of yoga a Yogis were people who did not agree or adhere to the caste system female form of the word is yogini b Yoga was practiced to make sure that the Atman was in charge of the body not the other way around breathing exercises walking on hot coals etc IV Jainism was another religion that was founded by Mahavira a man who was born high into the caste system but rejected it anyway a They believed in reincarnation 1 If a king was harsh to his peasants he could be reincarnated as a tiger which were allowed to be hunted and killed by the peasants 2 If someone had good karma they could be reincarnated as a human higher in the caste system an elephant cow or dog b They believed that all life is sacred not just human life so they would never kill any animals gently wipe away bigs when they sat down and wore masks where there were lots of bugs