Week 1-2 Notes (8/26-9/2)
Week 1-2 Notes (8/26-9/2) ENGL 221
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 221 at Towson University taught by Christopher Cain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see British Lit in Foreign Language at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
British Literature to 1798 Week 12 Notes 8262015922015 In Class English formed circa 450 CE 0 Written form not developmentrecorded until circa 800 CE Novel as the main form of literature developed at the end of the 17th centuryturn of 18th 0 Previously the main form was poetry 0 Poetry is a nuemonic device worked well with stories being told orally Readings Reading and Writing about Literature Chapter 1 o Literature explores the larger world and how one interacts with it 0 Writing about literature helps us clarify knowledgebeliefs Chapter 2 I Good Reading is NOT Fast Reading I Be willing to reread in order to ensure understanding I There are no hidden meanings 9 active reading is constant interpretation 0 Active Reading I Annotating 0 Highlight margin notes ask question look for unusual features of language I Note Taking I Journal Keeping I Use Reference Materials 0 Critical Questions of Literature I About the Text 0 Genre structure language and style I About the Author 0 Balance between New Criticism the text as a standalone entity and the In uence of personal experience I About Cultural Context 0 What was happening at the time social political economic religious etc I About the Reader 0 Who wasis the intended audience In Class On Literature 0 What makes literature literary I Subjectivity9 there are no set standards 0 Literary literature is often a re ection of the culture I Literary values change with time I Currently as in 21quotquot century at the height of literacy rates 0 Litteratvs the ability to readwrite Latin root of word literacy I After fall of Rome readingwriting were preserved in Church takes over Latin language I Only concern was with Latin didn t care about EnglishFrenchetc I Could be partially literature 0 Could read but not write 0 Reading was a mentalintellectual task while writing was mechanical and designated to slavesservantsetc 0 Why Read Literature I Ideologies in uence how we approach text I Literary engages mind in ways other literature doesn t 0 Why Write about Literature I Clarify thoughtsbeliefs I Helps structure thoughts I To demystify readingwriting 0 NO HIDDEN MEANINGS see Readings 8262015 Middle Ages 0 Collapse of Rome to the Renaissance 0 Middle Ages is the inbetween Dark Ages I Vast culturalsocialhistorical emptiness I 1000 years 0 Still high levels of social organization ex Centralized government and high culture 0 Literature I Past time and leisure activity I Also used to better one s own status obtaining rich patrons to commission work 0 Alterity 9 different alternative I Literature is radically alternative 0 Need to think of the Middle Ages on its own rather than as the Dark Ages 0 Fall of Rome 9 410 CE I First time Rome was sacked by Outsiders o Alaric Goth 9 Germanic Tribe 0 Had been a constant existential threat for centuries 0 Germanic Tribes were tribal kinship based with a semblance of a common culture 0 Led to the shrinkage of Rome 0 Began pulling back from the Frontier left Northern territory England open for invasionsettlements o 476 CE was the split of Rome between East and West 0 Created Byzantium 0 West was overrun by invaders and effectively ended 0 England colonized by Rome I Rome s most Northern Point at height of empire 9 ended at Hadrian s wall designed to keep out Northern tribes 0 55 CE until 410 CE 0 After Rome abandoned this in 410 the land was populated by Celts 0 They had lost Roman protection so increase in invasions 0 End of RomanoCeltic Britain driven into Wales in 450 I Invaded by Germanic tribes in 450 0 Was a multigenerational angry migration 0 3 main tribesdialects settled in England 0 Angles o Saxons o J utes 0 Date is given by Bede retrieved from legends 0 These tribes were pagan polytheisticritualistic 0 Conversion to Christianity was when they began to form one identity I At an intervention by Pope Gregory the Great who sent St Augustine 597 to Kent to convert I Tribes were then given literacy money coinage written law a central leader PopeRoman Emperor became part of a larger world Readings Reading and Writing about Literature Chapter 3 o Prewriting I Annotating and questioning a text I Gathering notes and discussing the textanalysis I Choosing a topic 0 Of genuine interest to you 0 Consider how to bring in own backgroundexperience I Developing an argument 0 Convince readers that your position is valid I The Thesis Is a statement about your topic Should be clear specific relevant debatable and original 0 Can be stated as a complete sentence 0 Be in strong unambiguous language 0 Is appropriate to assignment I Gathering Support 0 Use text others ideas own ideals o BRAINSTORMING I Organizing Your Paper I Drafting 0 Introduction 0 Conclusion 0 Transitions 0 Peer Writing and Workshop I Be respectful I Be mindful of time I Honesty is needed I Focus on both the good and bad The Norton Anthology of English Literature Introduction to the Middle Ages pg 123 0 Time span collapse of Roman Empire to Renaissance and Reformation ca 400 ca1500 0 Period of historical social and linguistic change I Divided into 3 sections 0 AngloSaxon Literature Old English 0 AngloNorman Literature Early Middle English o Middle English Literature Middle English 914th 15th Century 0 AngloS axon Literature I Developed after withdrawal of Roman legions in 5th century I Conversion from Paganism to Christianity heavily started in 597 St Augustine led to increase in book production o Bede written story of English conversion to Christianity in 731 I Christian AngloSaxons suffered Germanic invasions 0 Old English preserved with Saxon dialect 9th century I Earliest records in English are religious think Bede 0 Previously all had been oral I Poetry was inspired heavily by the Germanic heroic poetry think Beowulf 0 Christian stories written in this format I Language is used to formalize and elevate speech 0 Lots of irony o AngloNorman Literature I Started in 1066 with the invasion of the Normans I In uence of the French language 0 Increased linguistic and cultural exchanges I 4 Primary Languages Latin French English and Celtic I Attraction to Celtic Oral legends I Development of Romance Genre 0 Love and psychological interiority were focal 0 French based genre 0 Middle English Literature I 14th Century 9 war and disease were devastatingly prevalent 0 Hundred Years War England and France 1337 o Bubonic Plague 1348 I Major Figures 0 Marie de France Chretien de Troyes Dante Chaucer John Gower Julian of Norwich I 15th Century 0 Crowning of Henry V11 1485 after death of Richard III in the War of the Roses for more see 922015 class notes 0 Monk John Lydgate 0 Most prolific poet 0 Selfstyled imitator of Chaucer 0 Religious work under greater surveillance 0 Sir Thomas Malory d 1471 o Definitive form to legend of King Arthur 0 Printing Press 0 Extended literacy booksliterature became a business 0 Medieval English I Weakened in ection system I In uenced increasingly by French I Spelling is mainly phonetic I Vowels are long when doubled or terminal 0 Short when followed by two consonants In Class Middle Ages cont d from previous class 0 313 CE began the unwinding of Rome earliest start of Middle Ages I Edict of Milan by Constantine which allowed Christianity to become a tolerated religion 0 Previously it had been Roman duty to persecute nontolerated religions I Rome was highly apotropaic rituals play a large part in real world events I Beginning of The New World 0 476 CE was the last Western Emperor of Rome future rulers were Eastern or Germanic EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES CIRCA 400 CE CIRCA 1500 0 1450s invention of the printing press 0 1519 Protestant Reformation Martin Luther ENGLISH MIDDLE AGES CIRCA 450 CE CIRCA 1485 CE 0 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field I Part of the War of the Roses 14001485 0 At the death of Edward III s son there was the question of who was going to be next in line 0 Became war of the Yorkish Branch and Lancaster Branch I Death of Richard III 0 The last Lancaster King I At Richard s death the Tudors took over and crowned Henry VII 0 Start of Modern England English Middle Ages 0 Anglo Saxon Period language Old English circa 450 circa 1100 I Bones of the English language are Germanic I First to adopt Christianity in the North after Ireland 0 597 St Augustine s mission to convert and develop institutions associated with the conversion 0 Recording of English coincidental to the recording of Latin Church language I Largest recording of language other than Latin 0 Progressive in terms of women I Able to sue for divorce and inherit property King Alfred s Preface to the Pastoral Cave 0 King Alfred King of Wessex subkingdom in England I At Alfred s time it was the only powerful subkingdom left others were invaded by Vikings in 798 0 See map of subkingdoms 0n Blackboard 0 Held Vikings off with a peace agreement where they agreed to stop expansion and convert to Christianity I Alfred was the 4th Son and so was training to be a member of the clergy 0 Why he could readwrite Latin 0 Pastoral Cave bishop handbook 0 Letters to various Bishops telling them why it was necessary to translate books into English I So the next generation could still understand they weren t learning Latin I Somewhat of an Educational Reform wants to bring back the informal wealthy tutoring and Religious education 0 Odd because medieval Kings primary concern was always to provide a male heir Bede and Caedmon s Hymn o Caedmon first English poet 0 Bede d 732 most famous scholar of the day I From Northumbrian thought to be the hotspot for scholars I Must have had access to impressive library he never travelled to experience the things he wrote about 0 150200 volumes Readings Reading and Writing about Literature Chapter 4 0 Summary brief recap of the most important parts in a work I Interpretation is a minimum I Present tense I Used as supporting evidence in literary papers 0 Few sentences 0 Restate author s thesis 0 Response to describe your personal response to a reading and explain why you had this reaction I Choose one thought and explore that I Somewhat informal papersdon t necessarily follow thesisandsupport model 0 Explication closereading of poemprose I Makes subtle thoughts clear and explicit I Consider elements such as sentence structure style imagery figurative language word choice grammarpunctuation I Point out elements of style and explain purposeeffect of these on the text 0 Analysis take a whole work apart and examine how the individual pieces relate to each other and the work I Plot development characterization tone irony symbols 0 Comparison and Contrast I Within one work or between multiple I Comparison emphasizes the similaritiescontrast highlights the differences 0 Essay Exams I Prep takes two forms knowing material and anticipating questions 0 Keep up with readingHW o Revisit readings skimmingrereading key passages studying notes 0 Consider themesissues of book from class patterns in notes points the instructor stressed 0 Be as specific as possible 0 Reference the work use character names recall plot points 0 Outline 0 Be clear and concise o More formulaic than traditional essays 0 Show and sweet introduction and conclusion few sentences Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Hero Blackboaro Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Hero 0 Translated for NAEL by Seamus Heaney I Focuses on memory and the relation between past and present The Heroic Ideal o The Battle of Maldon 9 movingforceful statement of heroic ethic 0 Christianity converted Germanic heroic poetry and transformed it I Christ becomes modeled as a young hero I Cruci xion great struggle I Language and motifs are applied to teaching a new doctrine wants to teach those to sufferendure rather than seek vengeance 0 Judith blending of Biblical history with AngloS axon tradition Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Epic Tradition o Finnsburg episode of Beowulf is in the classic tradition short works celebrating deeds of heroes in warrior society 0 Previously all were oral by bardssingers who drew on traditional verse formulas 0 Author of Beowulf portrays the preChristian world as awed and vulnerable I Threats not only by monsters but by blood vengeance and never ending feuds I Hints at limitations of the heroic ideal Norton Anthology of English Literature Beowulf lines 11250 0 Written anywhere from first half of 8th century10th century 0 Originally composed in Mercia dialect Reviving heroic language style and paganism of Germanic oral poetry Deals With Germanic tribes South Scandinavian I The Danes I The Geats I Takes place Mid5th centuryEnd of AngloSaxon Migration Author Christian man Holds to Germanic values I Loyalty of warrior I Lord s oath of protection Soberdignified elegiac mood I Bookended by funerals
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