Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes AN_SCI 3254 - 01
Popular in Physiology of Domestic Animals
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AN_SCI 3254 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Donald Spiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Domestic Animals in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week 2 Notes AnSci 3254 831 Intercellular Connections 0 2 Activities Fasten cells together more tight Allow passage between cells more freedom 0 Desmosome Dense matter protein between cells that go into the cytoplasm between cells Rivet Like Important for cells that stretch and move a lot I Skin l Cardiac Muscle 0 Tight Junctions Where 2 cells come together and touch up very tight Occur around entire cell Regulates substance movement Found in hollow organs or tubes Intestines Found in areas where were trying to keep potentially toxic things from the blood 0 Gap Junctions Protein channels that directly link the cytoplasm of cells ports holes I Energy Metabolism Low resistance pathway to conduct ions and electrical activity I Allows material to pass across Pathway for NA amp K ion movement Found in muscles that need to by synchronized l Smooth muscle GI Tract l Cardiac muscle Allows sugar and amino acids 0 ATP Production Oxidative Phosphorylation needed for the rest of the body Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle TCA Krebs Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Mitochondria major energy releasing pathway in the body I Contain all enzymes and coenzymes for TCA and oxidative phosphorylation 1 glucose gtgtgtglycolysis gtgtgt 2 pyretic acids 2 ATP Heat l Happens in the cytoplasm doesn t need mitochondria l Majority but not all ATP comes from the ETC l Anaerobic Process l Aerobic Process starts when pyruvic acid enters mitochondria l Red Blood Cells don t have mitochondria Rely on glycolysis I For each molecule of glucose l 38 ATP Produced l Citric Acid Cycle 2 ATP Aerobic I Only in the mitochondria l Oxidative Phosphorylation 34 ATP Aerobic l Glycolysis 2 ATP Anaerobic I In cytoplasm I In the absence of 02 only anaerobic glycolysis happens I 2 ATP Pyruvate Pyruvic Acid gtgtgt Lactate or Lactic Acid l Lactic acid produced muscle cells during muscular activity is reconverted in the liver into glycogen l Energy source I 2 of energy comes from anaerobic ATP l 44 of energy comes from aerobic ATP I More ATP produced from aerobic conditions The Cori Cycle l Anaerobic l 2 Main Tissues Liver and Muscle l Glucose stored as glycogen 0 Major Metabolic Fuels Glucose Amino Acids Fatty Acids Liver Enter intermediate paths to produce reduced coenzymes NADH for ATP synthesis Major processing occurs in the liver l Hepatic portal vein passes from digestive organs and spleen to the liver l Transports amino acids carbs and short chain fatty acids I Where nutrients are absorbed Maj or portion of absorbed fat from the intestines enters the lymphatic vessels I Not absorbed in the blood 0 Functions Bile secretionproduction stored in gallbladder then released in the small intestine Regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism Synthesis and degradation of proteins and formation of urea and uric acid Regulation of hormonal balance degradesbreakdown numerous hormones Detoxification of certain metabolic products I Blood reserve for up to 25 of liver weight causes dark red color I Regulation of water balance by generating blood proteins which contribute to osmotic pressure I Detox blood 0 Glucose basic metabolic fuel I Preferred by the central nervous system I Nonruminants have direct intake of glucose through food I Ruminants rely on gluconeogenesis glucose new production for glucose l Producing glucose from a noncarb source 0 Fat goes directly to the liver 0 Carbohydrate Metabolism Absorptive 0 Mainly glucose 0 Different for ruminants and non ruminants 91 Carbohydrate Metabolism Absorptive Phase 0 Absorptive Phase first 2 hours after eating 0 Nonruminants l Carbs are broken down to monosaccharides and absorbed l Enter portal circulation and move to liver 0 Ruminants I Don t produce much Acetyl Coa from ingested glucose l Glucose is scarce gt eat plants I Rely on volatile fatty acids l Produced by microbes l Microbes act first on food and turn them into Volatile Fatty Acids 0 Liver Major uptake site I Processed for storage I Glucose l Stored as glycogen glycogenesis l Produces glycerophosphate for fatlipid synthesis l Glycerol 3 fatty acids Triglyceride l Hydrolyzed gt Acetyl CoA gt Fatty Acids gt Lipids l Too many carbs extra fat goes into the cycle at Acetyl CoA O Volatile Fatty Acids l Anaerobic waste l Absorbed from the gut I Used to release energy I Propionate Glucose precursor ruminants Enters at succinyl CoA bottom of the cycle Exits at oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis Does not enter the entire TCA cycle Rumen gtgt portal blood goes to liver for gluconeognisis I Never enters systemic circulation past the hepatic portal l Other VFAs acetate and butyrate I Go to fatty acid synthesis ketogenesis amp TCA cycle to release energy 0 Source of Glucose Ruminant l Glycerol triglycerid hydrolyse l Lactate enters the Cori Cycle l Selected amino acids alanine glutamate l Propionate VFA 0 Glycogen Storage l Liver never exceeds 10 of liver weight I Major storage I Skeletal muscle largest tissue mass in the body I Glycogen is the only direct form of glucose storage I Liver glycogen produces glucose for the ret of the body only place I Muscle glycogen does not yield glucose but produces substrates pyruvate and lactate for hepatic gluconeogenesis l Breakdown glycogen for ATP l Glycogen in muscle gt pyruvate and lactate gt released In blood gt liver gt converted to glucose l Glycogen in muscle gt pyruvate and lactate gt converted to ATP l Pyruvate and lactate in the muscle can be used by muscles to produce ATP 0 Characteristics of Glycolysis breakdown of glucose l Reversible l Occurs in all cells Especially RBCs I No mitochondria l 2 ATPs are release I Anaerobic O Glucose is used for the direct synthesis of fatty acids l Liver and adipose tissue l Occurs during absorptive phase when there s abundant glucose 0 NonRuminant l Glucose gt acetyl CoA 0 Ruminant l Acetyl CoA gt Fatty acid production and TCA activity 92 Protein Metabolism Fuel Building Block Absorptive Phase Most amino acids transformed into glucose liver gluconeogenesis Protein 75 body solids building blocks Fatty acid production if too much protein 0 Most amino acids go to liver via hepatic portal circuit Ruminants I Large amount removed on first pass Approx 75 leaves liver amp goes to other tissues In Liver l Amino acids deaminated amino group is removed and converted to urea to produce keto acids Which I Enter carbohydrate paths for energy release ketogenic l Gluconeogenesis glycogen synthesis glucogenic l Fatty acid synthesis Ketoacids Used for energy releases ATP in Krebs Cycle l Produced from the breakdown of amino acids l Amino Group Ammonia Glucose Peptides gtgtgtmicrobesgtgtgt VFA NH3 ammonia CH4 methane C02 Propionate primary glucose source 0 Nonruminants Amino Acids gtgtgt Liver gtgtgt Urea l gtgtgt Keto Acids keto analogs gtgtgt Energy I gtgtgt FA l gtgtgt Glucose Alanine produces pyruvate kept acid I Pyruvate is a keto acid 0 Fat Metabolism 0 Major form of stored energy Stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue l A trigylceride is composed of 3 fatty acid molecules 1 glycerol molecule 0 Fat is an ideal form of energy storage 0 Highly reduced molecules Little oxygen compared to carbon and hydrogen Important for ATP Concentrated energy source bc of carbon and hydrogen l Twice caloric value of amino acids and carbs Contains little water I Undiluted by bulky water I Can carry more energy Lots of fat little water in the body l Very concentrated O Fats are not water soluble carried in the blood Chylomicrons Must have special transport system to move around blood amp lymph l Parallel system slow moving Moves fat around Formed in cell lining of the gut Fat is packaged into chylomicrons that go into lymph system and dumped into the blood Composed of triglyceride phospholipid cholesterol minor dietary lipids proteins on surface Becomes water soluble l Spheres with hydrophobic ends core I Fat doesn t like water so it s protected l Hydrophilic ends surface I Allows it to be dissolved into the blood I Need to make it fat soluble or there will be chunks of fat in the blood and heart gt will cause a blockage Absorbed by small intestine gt Enters blood via lymphatics thoracic duct into vena cava After fatty meal blood is a milky white color because of the chylomicrons in it lipemia Gone 1 2 hours after digestion 0 Fatty Acids Fatty acids from the liver are also insoluble in the blood I Form VLDL very light density lipoprotein how fatty acids leave the blood I VLDL Triglycerides Phospholipids Cholesterol Proteins l Smaller than chylomicrons but similar in structure and function Inner surface capillaries of adipose tissue contain lipoprotein lipase l Lipoprotein Lipase enzyme that breaks down the proteins and lipids l Hydrolyzes breaks down triglycerides fat cells to form fatty acids glycerol Fatty acids enters adipocyte to form a new triglyceride molecule Combines with existing fat micro droplets to form a larger droplet Born with the number of fat cells we are going to have but they can change size get bigger which is how we get fat I Fat cells change size a lot I Fat cells are one of the largest cells in the body 0 Ruminants Glucose problemstorage Glucose used to produce the glycerol backbone but not for fatty acid synthesis l They re conserved l Fatty acids come from acetate Fatty acid is derived from acetate VFA and ketone bodies acetone acetoacetate betahydroxybutyrate Keto acids aren t keto bodies I Keto acids come from amino acids l Kept bodies come from fat Fatty acids only produced in adipose tissue and not in liver as in nonruminants l Almost no digestible carbohydrate goes to intestine for digestion and absorption as glucose l Most is converted to fatty acids l Limited amount of glucose Ruminant is in a constant state of potential glucose deficiency During peak lactation l Glucose needed for lactose or milk sugar I Lactational ketosis dairy cows l Ketosis having many ketone bodies 0 Postabsorption Primarily nonruminants Several hours after a meal Decrease glucose and amino acid entering cells or fat Glycogenolysis glucose is mobilized O O O O Primarily from liver glycogen Protein breakdown Maintain cell amino acid pool growth Supply energy to the cell Breakdown of amino acids produces ammonia I Liver I I I Detoxified in liver to produce urea Urea formation Glucose synthesisproduction Energy release Ruminant Lipids Very efficient with urea Recycle and reuse urea instead of secreting it I Urea enters the blood and mixes with saliva and goes back to the GI tract l Microbes convert urea to ammonia and C02 l Ammonia is utilized to synthesize new amino acids that are absorbed and utilized O Ketosis O Hydrolysis of stored fat produces glycerol and fatty acids l HormoneSensitive Lipases Hydrolyzes fats and get them back into the blood I Stimulated by l Growth hormone l Thyroxine metabolism and growth I Glucagon release stored energy and leave cells I Opposite of insulin pushes carbs out into the blood I Cortisol mobilize stored energy I Release energy we nee to survive in the blood Released fatty acids that are bound to albumin carrier protein in blood I Helps conceal fatty acid until it gets to the blood Fatty acids can t be converted to glucose gluconeogenesis Fatty acids do enter mitochondria of liver muscle and other tissues l Beta oxidation produces acetyl CoA that enters TCA cycle for energy release Ketone Bodies acetone acetoacetate betahydroxybutyrate fat derived water soluble metabolites Excess acetyl CoA is converted into ketone bodies Can leave mitochondria for other tissues l Formed in the liver non ruminants and ruminants I Can t be used by the liver for energy I Can act as glucose substitute l Preferred by cardiac muscle over glucose Able to cross bloodbrain barrier to provide large portion of energy to CNS during prolong starvation I Blood brain barrier keep toxins away from the brain tissue l Alcohol goes through the barrier Keep brain active and can cross the blood brain barrier I Some glucose is still needed Fat soluble Help during times of starvation Ruminants produce beta hydroxybutyrate ketone body I Energy source I Produced in the rumen by microbes l Another place besides the liver to get microbes If unable to oxidize all ketones they accumulate in the body Ketosis Metabolic Acidosis if not buffered by a base can result in death Accumulation of ketones 0 Causes l Starvation Breaking down fat I High fat Low carb diet I No conversion fat gtgtgt carbohydrate l Diabetes Mellitus especially in dogs I Lack insulin high blood glucose l Starved for sugar and have to rely on fat 0 What happens during starvation O Glucose is the preferred energy source I Total supply used up in a few hours Glycogen liver and skeletal muscle stored glucose l Glucose in liver and released to tissue l Hepatic glycogen release of glucose is limited I Low exertion lasts for 6 12 hours I Heavy exertion lasts for 20 minutes 0 O Gluconeogenesis l Pyruvate and other intermediate of TCA Cycle l Generated by deamination of amino acids 0 Fats are converted to fatty acids then ketones dieting I Save fat until it s really needed 0 Protein breakdown during the final stage I Structure and muscle 0 Body weakens and leads to death 93 Digestive System 0 Functions 0 Ingestion O Grinding food 0 Digestion l Absorption of food into blood and lymph system I Elimination of waste Mouth Grinding food and mixing with saliva l Mastication Grinding food I Decreases food particle size and mixes with saliva l Creates boulus l Remastication Bringing food back up to rechew it I Important in ruminants bc they take in large amounts of food over a short period of time 0 O Saliva l Salivary Glands 3 major paired glands mammals l Parotid below and front of ear stimulated saliva l Submandibular upper jaw unstimulated saliva l Subligual under tongue mainly mucus l Ruminants have a fourth gland inferior molar l pH 7 l Functions l Lubricant easier to grind and swallow food I Dissolves some food I Taste l Neutralize pH bicarbonate l Composition l Water 9899 I Mucus holds food together in bolus for swallowing l Lubricates food I Salivary Amylase ptyalin starch splitting to glucose l Enzyme I Start of carbohydrate digestion l Most carb digestion is in the small intestine I Not important in ruminants because they take in little glucose l Although some salivary lipase l Salivary lipase Breakdown fat I Amylase is destroyed in the stomachs environment I Up to 50 starch digestion begins in the mouth I Makes food taste sweet and more interesting I Sodium bicarbonate phosphate l Buffers food to reduce acidity teeth intact l Tooth decay would occur wo bicarbonate buffer Lots of acid in the food I Anything below pH of 4 will dissolve calcium phosphate tooth enamel l Anything acid like gtgt instant saliva from parotid l Sugar l Waste products from the bacteria are highly acidic and destroy enamel I Not directly due to sugar I Why do newborns with no teeth to protect have so much saliva I No teeth to keep it in the mouth I High fat diet 100 whole milk saliva has lipase to breakdown the fat I Ruminants have a large amount of saliva l Equal to extracellular uid volume blood and all uid out of the cell per day Large amount I Must absorb water and electrolytes Easy to become dehydrated l 2 Kinds l Stimulated Parotid l Conditioned re ex I 7090 of the 23 pints of saliva generated daily I EX steak brought to your table and you salivate l Primary function dilute aid l pH of soda juice Wine 24 highly acidic l Unstimulated submandibular l Spit l Filaments due to muchins long chained amino acids in webs l Causes Viscosity elasticity and stickiness l Protective film for teeth I Traps bacteria I Has antimicrobial properties that are superior to mouthwash
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