Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes 71942 - BIOL 213 - 003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jena chalmers on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 71942 - BIOL 213 - 003 at George Mason University taught by Charles R Madden (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Cell Structure and Function in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
BIOL 213 Week 1 83194 Chapter 1 Studying Life 0 What is science The search for natural explanations for all observable phenomena distinct from supernatural beliefs Q Uses quanti able data and statistical analysis 0 Deductive logic Making predictions based on reasoning starts with statement perceived to be true and predicts what facts would be true to be compatible with statement Used to make predictions 0 Inductive logic Deriving general principles from reproducible facts and observations Used to make hypothesis Observe phenomenon make observations Ask questions Develop hypothesis must be testable and capable of being rejected Make prediction Devise tests of hypothesis experiments Carry out tests and analyze results Scienti c Theory A hypothesis that s been tested many times and has not been found incorrect What is biolog The scienti c study of lifeliving organisms Controlled experiment manipulates one or more variables being tested 0 Best kind 0 Comparative experiment compares unmanipulated data 0 Starts with prediction that there will be a difference between groups based on the hypothesis 0 DISCOVERIES IN BIO CAN BE GENERALIZED TO ALL LIVING THINGS I 0 Model systems are used to extend ndings onto other organisms CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS viruses are not considered living Q Made of a common set of chemical components Carbohydrates monomers called monosaccharides combine to form polymers called polysaccharides Fatty Acids combine with glycerol to produce lipids Nucleic Acids in DNA and RNA Amino Acids building blocks of protein Q Consist of one or more cells 0 Have a metabolism the ability to use harness store anol use energy to maintain self grow anol reproduce Convert molecules from environment into new biological molecules Energy light heat chemical nutrients that receptors can detect Earliest prokaryotes took molecules directly from environment 0 Interact With their environment Extract energy from environment to do biological work 0 Contain genetic information Universal genetic code that s speci es production of amino acids which are building blocks of proteins 0 Use genetic information to reproduce 0 Exist in populations that evolve Evolution is central theme of biology o Selfregulate their internal environment 0 Die 0 THE CELL Q Virchow 18211902 All disease is caused by changes at the cellular level Q Cell Theory Schleiden 1838 The cell is the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms Ce can be distinct entity in unicellular organism or building blocks of complex organisms o More cell theory Cells Come from preexisting cells Are similar in chemical composition Are the setting for most of the chemical reactions of life Replicate complete sets of their genetic information and pass them on during cell division 0 DNA 0 Contains instructions for making proteins structure and enzymes 0 Controls inheritance of traits 0 Guide development 0 All organisms alive today originated from one life form 4 billion years ago common ancestry o If life had multiple origins we wouldn t expect to see such striking similarities in gene sequences genetic code and amino acids 0 Charles Darwin coined the phrase quotdescent with modification 0 Natural Selection and Evolution principles 0 Individual variation and mutation o Overproduction and competition 0 Unequal reproductive success 0 Biological changeadaptions Adaptions traits that raise an organism s chance of survival and reproduction o Populations evolve not individuals 0 Other Evolutionary Processes 0 Sexual Selection selection due to mate choice 0 Genetic Drift random uctuation of gene frequencies in a population due to chance Unicellular Organisms enclosed by single outer membrane a single cell carries out all functions of life Multicellular Organisms made of many cells that are specialized for different functions 0 Cellular specialization allowed multicellular organisms to increase in size and work more efficiently o TIMELINE o 46 billion years ago earth formed 0 4 billion years ago life evolved Through chemical evolution Biological molecules came about by random association of chemicals 0 25 billion years ago photosynthesis became a thing and changed earth s atmosphere Made aerobic respiration the process of using oxygen to extract energy from nutrientrich molecules possible Created ozone layer Linages of Life 3 major ones bolded o Prokaryotes simple singlecelled no nucleus Bacteria most bacteria Archaea extremophiles Theory some prokaryotes began to live closely together and merged to form o Eukaryotes complex many cells nucleated Protistans Fungi Plants Animals Phylogenetic trees made by biologists to show evolutionary history of different groups of organisms 0 Levels of Biological Organization Dear King Phillip Came Over For Good Sushi 0000000 0 Species is called by a binomial two Latin names Genus then species Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Levels of Biological Organization 0 000000 Atoms C H O Molecules carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleic acids Cell life starts here Tissue Organs Organ System Organism Population group of individuals of the same species thatinteract Community all species that interact in a de ned area Ecosystem communities and their abiotic non living environment Ex Tundra Tropical Rainforest o Biosphere Earth Chapter 2 Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life Matter is composed of m which are made of o Electrons negligible mass Mass is 9 x 10quot 28 AKA really really small 0 Protons have mass 0 Neutrons neutral charge have mass 0 1 atomic mass unit amu 1 dalton mass of one proton or neutron Element pure substance containing only one kind of atom 0 Periodic table organizes all the elements and usually gives the following information Atomic number at the top number of protons Chemical symbol one or two letter abbreviation for name Atomic mass at the bottom Number of protons plus number of neutrons measured in amu or daltons 0 Each has its own chemical symbol 0 Elements to memorize common in biology Carbon C Hydrogen H Oxygen O Nitrogen N 0 Elements to be familiar with Calcium Ca Phosphorus P Potassium K Sulfur S Sodium Na Chlorine CI Magnesium Mg ron Fe Isotopes forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons and therefor different mass numbers 0 Some isotopes have special names ex Hydrogen o Radioisotopes unstable isotopes give of energy as alpha beta and gamma radiation from nucleus Can be used to tag or label molecules because radiation can be detected Radiation can damage ces Used to treat cancer Radioactive decay changes atoms including number of protons 0 Chemical reactions involve changes in distribution of electrons between atoms Electrons determine atom behavior 0 Electronegativity attractive force that a nucleus exerts on electrons Depends on number of protons and distance between nucleus and electrons Nitrogen Oxygen and Fluorine have high electronegativities o Orbitals region where electron is at least 90 of the time Hold 2 electrons each Filled in certain order 0 Electron shells energy levels starting closest to nucleus and going outwards First shell has one s orbital holds 2 electrons Second shell has 1 s and 3 p orbitals holds 8 electrons Outermost valence shell determines behavior of atom When valence shell is full atom is stable 0 When valence shell has unpaired electronsis not full its unstablereactive Octet rule tendency of atoms to form stable molecules with 8 electrons in outermost shell 0 Molecule atoms bonded together Chemical bond attractive force that links atoms together to form molecules Compound a molecule made of 2 or more elements 0 Covalent bond atoms share electron pairs When elements don39t have a big difference in electronegativity Very strong force so quite stable Can be nonpolar when they share electrons equally and are hydrophobic or polar when they share electrons unequally and are hydrophyllic 10 Can have single double or triple bonds Ionic bond one atom rips electron off the other The atoms will then be attracted to each other because one is positively chargedcationic and one is negatively chargedanionic Called salts Hydrogen bond when hydrogen is involved in a polar covalent bond there is an interaction between the partially charged sides of the molecule and other molecules Relatively weak force Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the molecule Organic Chemistry study of carbon compounds Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds Very versatile Orientation of bonds length angle and direction of bonds between any 2 elements is always the same 3d shapes van der Waals forces attractions between nonpolar molecules that are close together Chemical Reactions happen when atoms collide with enough energy to change their bonding patterns I ENERGY AND MATI39ER CANNOT BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED Special properties of water Cohesion its attracted to itself Adhesion its attracted to other things 11 High speci c heat index doesn t heat up or cool down quickly High heat of vaporization basis of evaporative cooling sweating moderates climate Ice is less dense than liquid water so it oats keeps lakes from freezing soid
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