Body and Systems
Body and Systems PY 105
Popular in Honors Intro Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 105 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Groff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Honors Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
The Body Nervous SystemBrainEyeMouthSensation Nervous System NS o The NS is communication system for the body 0 Neuron basic piece of communication in the NS basic unit of the nerve cell 0 operate via electric impulses and communicate with other neurons via chemical signals 0 Key vocab cell body dendrite axon synapse terminal button synaptic cleft neurotransmitter I Cell body site in the neuron where info from other neurons is collected I Dendrite branchlike extensions of neuron that detect info from other neurons I Axon long narrow outgrowth by which info is transmitted to other neurons I Synapse site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons I Terminal button small nodule at end of axons that releases chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse I Synaptic cleft gap between the axon of a sending neuron and dendrites of a quotreceivingquot neuron I Myelin sheath fatty material that insulates the axon and allows for rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon I Nodes of Ranier small gaps of exposed axons bwn segments of myelin sheath I Neurotransmitter chemical substances that carry signals bwn neuron o Receptors protein molecules at dendrites and terminal buttons that either accept or retake up released neurotransmitters o 100 billion neurons in an adult 0 How communication occurs gt Some stimuli causes the nervous system to act I Dendrite receives communication info from cell body I Info runs down the cell body and through the axon to the terminal button I Neurotransmitters in terminal button release chemicals into the synaptic cleft thus communicating the transmitted info to another neuron I The process repeats itself at the info moves from neuron to neuron 0 There are many types of neurotransmitters that produce different results I Dopamine gt pleasure chemical makes you feel good 0 Ex drugs gt work like dopamine which is why people say they feel good or euphoric when taking them I Acetylcholine gt deals wmuscle and fine motor movement I Serotonin gt deals wmood high levels depression OCD I Endorphins gt work to reduce pain release during exercise quotrunners high I Agonist chemical that mimics the effect of a neurotransmitter 0 Usually they enhance the effects produced by the normal neurotransmitter I Antagonist blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter o Is taken up by receptors thus blocking the action of the normal neurotransmitter o Resting membrane potential electrical charge of a neuron when it isn t active I Resting negative Potassium influx excited positive sodium influx I Sodium and potassium ion pumps 0 Two parts of the NS CNS and PNS o CNS Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord 0 PNS Peripheral Nervous System all nerve cells not a part of the CNS I Two parts somatic and autonomic o Somatic Nervous System nerves going to voluntary muscles arm leg 0 Autonomic Nervous System nerves going to involuntary muscles 0 regulates the body s internal workings o Involved in regulating the heart glands blood vessels organs 0 Two types I Sympathetic gt gears the body for something 0 Preparatory actions for a perceived threat 0 Ex fight or fight response I Parasympathetic restoress body to prepreparation state 0 Postsympathetic response o Prefrontal cortex deals wrelational issues 0 Frontal lobes 0 Located in the forehead region 0 quotexecutive controlsfunctioning I Handles planning sequencing of events 0 Temporal lobes 0 Located above the ears on both sides of the head 0 Hearing memory 0 Occipital lobes 0 Located on the backside of head 0 Vision 0 Parietal lobes 0 Located at the top of the head 0 Sensations 0 Left side of the brain controls the right side of the body 0 Deals wlanguage such as writing I Ex giving written directions to a location uses the leftside of the brain 0 Right side of the brain controls the left side of the body 0 Deals wvisual and spatial things I Ex giving directions to a location via pictures uses the rightside of the brain 0 Plasticity if a part of the brain is damaged another part will handle the damaged region s functions 0 Melatonin hormone that deals with sedation o Darkness body produces more melatonin ex feel tired on rainycloudy days Sensation and Perception Mouth Sensation initial contact wthe environment touch smell taste sight hearing Perception selectionorganizationinterpretation of information from sensory perceptors Largest sense organ skin Transduction conversion of sensory stimuli into something the brain can understand Threshold level of sensitivity win sensory receptors 0 Absolute threshold ability to detect a stimulus at least 50 of the time Audition sense of hearing Sensory adaptation sensitivity to unchanging stimuli decreases over time o Grow accustomed to that stimuli so that you don t recognize it any more Selective attention put certain aspects of the environment in the background and only focus on one thing 0 Cocktail party phenomenon you are talking to your friends and you happened to hear someone say something that catches your attention even though you weren t focus on that person s conversation I Shows that the brain can pick up stimuli even when we aren t focused on it Retina contains rods and cones o Rods nighttime vision 0 Cones deals wcolor Born w2 dimensions and a third dimension is acquired later 0 3rel dimension that is acquired depth perception Optical illusions Subliminal perception perception below threshold for awareness underneath the surface ESP extrasensory perception ex psychics Illusions false perception of reality 0 MullerLyer illusion illusion of equalunequal length 0 Phi Phenomenon illusion of motion stationary objects given appearance of motion Deals with taste 5 types of taste senses sweet sour bitter salty umami savory
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