Psych 2300 Week of 8/31
Psych 2300 Week of 8/31 Psych 2300
Popular in Research Methods in Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Seth Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Research Methods Week of 83115 Chapter 1 Psychology and Science Psychology is a science It is a domain in which scientific inquiry can be conducted But not all claims are scientifically supported Phrenology Example Franz Joseph Gall 1796 o A theory that measurements of the skull could tell us more about the size of various parts of the brain and therefore inform us about a person s capacity for different traits 0 Claim The shape of the skull indicates both the underlying brain structure and a person s traits I Is this a scientific claim 0 Astronomy Claim The sun and stars revolve around the earth I Is this a scientific claim Claim Vs Method The truth value of a claim isn t what makes it scientific A false claim doesn t make an entire subject area nonscientific Differences Why is psychology a softer science 0 The targets of inquiry respond to observation enacting individually and situationally variable motives o The sources of causation can be numerous more complex and less easily measured 0 The domain is more accessible People may feel more comfortable making claims about their own and others psychological states whether or not those claims are scientifically supported The truly scientific claims can be hard to sort out form the rest The Point Psychological claims can be scientific and scientists have built a scientific foundation for explaining psychological phenomena We call the scientific study of such phenomena and claims Psychology Science is a rigorous way of thinking and examining phenomena of interest Producers vs Consumers Producers o The people who create the research 0 Producers of psychological research use the empirical method They systematically collect data to test and refine theories 0 How many psych majors become producers Consumers 0 Want to understand psychological phenomena 0 Apply their knowledge to their work family hobbies personal growth etc Commonality Proficiency in reading and evaluating research is important for both producers and consumers We want evidence based treatments TheoryData Cycle Theory Statements describing general principles about how variables relate to one another Hypotheses Specific statements about what we expect to see if our theory is accurate Data Set of observations Theory 9 research questions 9 research design 9 hypotheses 9 collecting data 9 support or revision Test the Theory Working from a theory a researcher develops a specific hypothesis 0 Empiricism using evidence from the senses Good theories are supported by data falsifiable must be observable parsimonious o Occam s Razor if all else is equal a simpler explanation is better Simpler theories that explain the same data are preferable Why Do Scientists Dig Deeper Replications are designed to reduce the chance that we will ultimately end up believing something is incorrect Modifications of the study and different research designs help to extend the results either generalizing the theory or creating boundaries for the theory Science is an accumulation of evidence Basic Applied and Translation Research Basic Research enhance general body of knowledge Applied Research solve a specific practical problem Often Overlap translation research bridge from basic to applied uses lessons from basic research to test applications in the real world a continuum Types of Research An experimental psychologist who examines people s ability to perceive a sweet taste An I O psychologist who is interested in whether a specific change in workplace policy improves the currently low morale in the workplace A researcher wants to know if new research on neuroplasticity can be used to improve functionality of prosthetic limbs Published Research Peer reviewed journals Conference presentations talks or posters Blogs Press releases and popular news Popular Press Coverage Research findings can be picked up by popular media 0 This can be beneficial because the research findings can reach people who would never have heard about the findings otherwise 0 There can also be costs Sometimes the findings are not reported accurately or they are reported without additional qualifiers that really should be stated I Mozart Effect have your child listen to Mozart to make them smarter later in life I Happiness across cities in the UK There is some uctuation across cities on chance alone But headlines pointed out that certain cities are happier I Kind of like the telephone game as it gets passed along the overall message changes by the time it gets into the media 0 Journal to Iournalism I Benefits Dissemination of knowledge Tips for improved lives New ideas for researchers I Two considerations Is the story important Is it accurate Chapter 2 Sources of Information Research Versus Your Experience Compared to what 0 A reasonable comparison group is needed Experience is confounded 0 Something you observe may have a hidden or unsuspected cause Controlled research is better more likely to be accurate than experience Compared to What Dr Rush believed bloodletting was an effective way of treating illness But he never compared the bleeding cure to a no treatment cure Comparison group 0 This belief can lead to a dubious moral imperative If bloodletting works I should use it with most of my patientsquot 0 But with this logic Dr Rush gives himself a handy rationalization when the patient dies Experience has Confounds When we evaluate our own experience we are not able to control for multiple cooccurring effects on our moods or behaviors Ex Reduce Anger o Venting anger catharsis 0 Exercise o Distractions Research Compared to Experience Researchers include a comparison group control for confounds and strive to evaluate information without bias But understand that research results are probabilistic 0 An experiential counterexample doesn t disprove the research 0 Honda example Consumer reports says the car is great but your dad had a bad experience with a Honda What do you do Use your dad s experience as one data point It will tell us what will probably happen but not realistically The Research Versus Your Intuition Thinking the easy way cognitive bias 0 Falling for a good story 0 Relying on availability 0 Focusing on PresentPresent Outcomes Thinking what we want to think about motivational biases o Cherrypicking evidence 0 Biased questioning confirmatory hypothesis testing 0 Bias blind spot and overconfidence Thinking the Easy Way 0 The good story accept a conclusion just because it makes sense or fits a familiar narrative o Bottling up angerletting off steam I Freud and catharsis o Stomach ulcers Thinking the Easy WayThe Availability of Heuristic Availability Heuristicreliance on what is most accessible easy to recall or easy to imagine in forming judgment 0 Mentally available examples guide our thinking because they come more easily to mind Imagine a group of 10 people 0 Estimate the number of unique groups of 2 people we could form from the group of ten 0 Now estimate the number of unique groups of 8 people we could form from the group of 10 Failing to Think About Other Data The presentpresent bias focus on positive instances more than negative ones 0 A focus on the cell in which a treatment and a desired outcome were both present while not properly considering the other cells Thinking What We Want Cherry picking the evidence seek and accept only evidence that supports what we already believe o IQ tests those who are told they have a higher IQ are more likely to read articles saying IQ tests are accurate 0 Asking biased questions asking questions more likely to give the desired answers 0 Leads to confirmatory hypothesis testing 0 Biased Blind Spot 0 Even if we can recognize bias in others we may have a harder time seeing it in ourselves Overconfidence 0 Part of the human condition 0 But being confident is not the same as being correct Intuitive Thinking vs Scientific Reasoning Because of these cognitive and motivational biases we may notice or seek out information that confirms what we suspect o This may lead us to an incorrect conclusion However a systematic collection of relevant data complete with comparison groups can mitigate these biases and lead us to answers that are more likely to be incorrect Authorities as a Source of Knowledge Relying on authorities for information is a necessary part of our lives 0 It speeds life Directly verifying every bit of info you would take forever But recognize that authorities are people too They might have more knowledge or power but they can succumb to the same biases and tendencies that everyone else does Authorities beliefs might be based on 0 Research 0 Personal experiences 0 Intuition 0 Another authority Again evidence that is based on empirical research is more likely to yield accurate information Reading Scientific Sources Where should you find the hypothesis for the study 0 Introduction Where should you find the number of participants 0 Method Where should you find background information about this study 0 Introduction Where should you find statistics used in the study 0 Results Where should you find a description of the strengths and weaknesses of the study 0 Discussion Where can you find a short summary of the study 0 Abstract Finding Research in Other Places Trade books by psychologists 0 Judge by the references The references can give you some information about the scientific rigor of the book Science writing in journalism 0 Use your critical thinking skills and look for references Wikis o Potentially useful Popular press 0 Useful for finding out that an interesting study exists 0 Read the original peerreview article Citing Articles APA publication manual is the preeminent source for how to cite a reference Psychology Subject Guide https guidesosuedu psychology APA style website httpapastyleorg Purdue Outline Writing Lab http owlenglishpurdue edu owl resource 560 O 1 Databases and Search Engines PsychINFO Web of Science OSU Library Google Scholar PsychINFO httplibraryosuedu carmen username password Research Databade PsychINFO Can get most info off of the Summary Page of Articles