PSYC4220 Week 3 Notes
PSYC4220 Week 3 Notes PSYC 4220
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
PSYC4220 Week 3 Notes August 31 2015 Video In The Womb September 22015 Maternal Characteristics and their Effects on Prenatal Development Age 1st pregnancy when under 16 or over 40 increases risk Why For mothers under 16 Environmental effects such as poverty poor nutrition high stress lack of prenatal care Risks decrease with good prenatal care and social support For mothers over 40 More difficulty conceiving due to fewer eggs Iess healthy eggs Increased risk of miscarriage due to genetic abnormalities Increased risk of genetic conditions like Down s Syndrome Increase of complications during pregnancydelivery Diet Recommend gaining 2535 pounds Effects of malnutrition depend on timing Can include miscarriage low birth weight decreased brain development Recommended to take prenatal vitamins and mineral supplements Folic acid B complex vitamin Magnesium zinc Keep placenta healthy Emotional condition High stressreease of hormone that crosses placental barrier Fetus may also sense changes in heart rate breathing tone of voice Occasional temporary stressno lasting consequences May be a good thing Long term severe stresslow birth weight premature birth Possible causes of stressgrief homelessness domestic violence After birth babies are more irritable active irregular Long term effectsincreased risk of symptoms of ADHD anxiety Results are correlational Can t determine causation Ability to cope with stress may be more important than amount Increased risk if Unhappy about marriagepregnancy No social support Teratogens Any disease drug or environmental agent that can harm the prenatal organism Effects of teratogen on body part or organ system are worst during sensitive periods Sensitive periods times when an organism is highly sensitive to environmental in uences Times of major development September 4 2015 Not all embryosfetuses are equally affected Depends on genetic makeup Same defect can be caused by different teratogens variety of defects can be caused by same teratogen Father s exposure may also cause problems Longterm effects of teratogens often depend on quality of postnatal environment Despite risks majority born without abnormalities or with treatable conditions Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Infant Perinatal environment during birth social and medical environment surrounding birth 3 stages of birth process 1st Stage regular contractions begin until cervix is dilated quotlaborquot contractions of uterus occur regularly cervix thins opens until dilated to 10cm average time 824 hours longer for 1st birth 2nol Stage Delivery of Baby with each contraction overwhelming urge to push baby out mother pushes fetus is delivered average 12 hour1 12 hours 3rCI Stage Delivery of Placenta fastest stage lasts only minutes Cesarean Sections Incision made through abdominal wall and into uterus Infant and placenta removed through opening Horizontal incisions Used for many reasons Ex Fetal distress slow labor progression multiple births breech births certain STls Infants born by Csections have greater risk of breathing difficulties Mother s recovery68 weeks Mother increased risk of infection complications during future pregnancies Birth Complications Low birth weight Less than 5 12 lbs Average size of baby7 12 lbs Very low birth weightess than 2 14 lbs Preterm Born before 37 weeks Born before 25 weeks50 chance of survival Small for date Birth weight far below normal even when born full term greater risk for complications Causes of lowbirthweight and prematurity 50 unknown Small pa rents multiples Placental problems Maternalenvironmental factors such as poverty malnutrition drug use lack of prenatal care age stress Complications caused by low birth weight Breathing difficulties Underdeveloped sensory systems Difficulty forming secure attachments to caregivers Learning difficulties low le Higher risk for heart disease type 2 diabetes asthma Smallerearliergreater risks Complications depend on quality of life after birth
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