Notes 9-1/9-3 PSY 0310
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Morris on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
PSY 0310Topics and Enduring Themes 9115 Topics 0 Foundations 0 Cognitive Social and Emotional Enduring Themes 1 Nature vs Nurture What makes us all the same 0 Origin of Knowledge and behavior 0 How do they shape development EX Critical period in language development a Brain expects certain stimuli during certain time windows if not you don t learn a test example epigenetics methylation deaf children not exposed to sign language 2 The Active Child 0 How do children shape their own development EX lnfants exploration of the world drives cognitive and motor development a Learning by doing 3 ContinuityDiscontinuity 0 Stages of continuous stage Gradual change between stages 0 Depends on purpose 4 Mechanisms of change 0 How is change explained EX Memory n Why do children have a hard time memorizing things Children develop strategies n Repetition How do strategies change 5 The Sociocultural Context 0 Culture the broader context 0 How does culture in uence development EX Cosleeping choices in certain cultures sleeping babies 6 Individual Differences o Nature vs Nurture Part 2 o What causes them Genetic differences Environmental differences can be CAUSED by genetic differences Environmental differences can have different results depending on genes 7 Research and Children s Welfare 0 Applying researchpublic welfare Eg Critical periods in language development EX Headstart Contexts for collecting data 0 Interview 0 Structured Interview xed questions for all 0 Critical Interview Through investigation of each individual 0 Observation 0 Naturalistic Observation Experimenter attempts to observe natural behavior with minimal interference EX Preschoolers conversations Best for social interaction process Advantages n Getting info from natural setting Disadvantages a People often act differently when being watched a Hard to control a Time consuming a Not good for rare behaviors o Structured Observation Experimenter controls experience of participants EX Past tense production in 2year olds Advantages U Get to control variables a Less time consuming Disadvantages a Not natural Designs for Studying Development 1 Longitudinal Same children long time lndividual differences 0 Special circumstances EX Joint attention and vocab 2 Crosssectional Different children for each age group 0 General pattern 3 Microgenetic difference between micro amp long is conceptual Same children many observations short period of time EX Memory strategies Measuring the relationship The Correlation Coefficient r 0 Correlation coefficient r 0 Relationship between two variables 0 Range 1 to 1 0 Sign o Magnitude how strong the relationship is The closer to 1 or 1 the stronger the correlation r2 percent of variance accounted for in one variable by the other variable Inferring causality Experimental design 0 Random Assignment to levelsconditions 0 So we know that groups don t inherent differences
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