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A&P Ch. 4 notes

by: Margaret Notetaker

A&P Ch. 4 notes BIOL 2500 - 018

Margaret Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Shobnom Ferdous

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Hey guys, here's the notes for chapter 4: tissues!
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Shobnom Ferdous
Class Notes
anatomy and physiology, Ferdus
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500 - 018 at Auburn University taught by Shobnom Ferdous in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
CHAPTER 4 TISSUES Tissue group of cells similar in structure that serve a similar specialized function 4 Categories 1 Epithelial a Sheet of cells that covers the body surfaces lines body cavities makes up glands b Maj or tissue for secreting portion of glands 2 Connective a Protects amp supports body and organs b Binds all tissues together holds all the layers together c Stores energy amp insulates the body adipose tissue d Transports substances through the blood 3 Muscle a Movement through the active generation of force b Smooth muscles affect movement of internal organs c Skeletal muscles affect movement of the skeleton d Cardiac muscles control the heart 4 Nervous a Initiates transmits interprets impulses that coordinate the body b Interaction of brain spinal cord and nerves with rest of the body Epithelial Characteristics 1 Cells are closely packed with little extracellular space 2 All have specialized cell to cell contact a Tight Junctions i Integral proteins of neighboring cells fuse together ii Prevents substances from passing between cells b Desmosomes i Protein laments extend and link ii Reduces internal tension 3 Polarity a Have a top apical amp bottom basal b Apical faces the lumen of a hollow organartery exterior of body c Always attached to connective tissue via the basement membrane d Basement membrane is the noncellular connection between epithelial and connective tissues e Basal Lamina glycoprotein from epithelial collagen f Reticular Lamina glycoprotein from connective collagen 4 Avascular a Has no supply of blood no vessels b Gets nutrients from blood supply in connective tissue 5 High regeneration rate a Exposed to significant friction in external environment b Lost cells are replaced by mitosis 6 Specialization a CHAPTER 4 TISSUES i hairlike projections used for propulsion ii Typically found in the trachea amp nose b Microvilli i Extensions of plasma membrane ii Increase surface area for greater absorption iii Typically found in small intestine Arrangement 1 Simple a Single thin layer of cells b Areas of minimal wear amp tear c Areas of diffusion amp absorption 2 Stratified a Several thick layers of cells b Areas of significant wear amp tear 3 Pseudostratified a Single layer of cells b Sometimes have cilia that secrete mucus 4 Transitional a Many layers of cells that expand Shape l Squamous a Flat cells with a squished nucleus 2 Cuboidal a Square cells with a spherical nucleus 3 Columnar a Column cells with a stretched out nucleus Arrangement Shape Simple Squamous 0 Single layer of attened cells 0 Materials pass through cells easily for diffusion amp filtration o Secretions in serosa layer 0 Found in kidney glomeruli lung air sacs lining of heart blood vessels Simple Cuboidal 0 Single layer of cube shaped cells 0 Secretion amp absorption 0 Found in kidney tubules secretory glands ovaries Simple Columnar 0 Single layer of column shaped cells 0 Absorption amp secretion of mucus o Ciliated types propel mucus amp other substances 0 Nonciliated digestive tract gallbladder excretory ducts o Ciliated uterine tube small bronchi uterus Pesudostratified Columnar OOOOO CHAPTER 4 TISSUES Single layer of columnar cells with some ciliated Cells are only ciliated if they reach the free surface Secrete substances mainly mucus Cilia propel mucus Nonciliated sperm ducts ducts of large glands o Ciliated trachea upper respiratory tract Strati ed Squamous 0 Thick layer of attened cells 0 Protects tissues subject to abrasions 0 Outer layer of keratinized cells is dead 0 Keratinized skin 0 Nonkeratinized esophagus vagina mouth Transitional 0 Top layer is dome shaped with the other layers with cuboidal or columnar o Stretches to store urine 0 Found in ureter bladder urethra Types Function Location Simple Squamous Diffusion filtration secretion kidney glomeruli lung air sacs lining of heart blood vessels Simple Cuboidal Secretion amp absorption kidney tubules secretory glands ovaries Simple Columnar Absorption amp secretion mucus digestive tract gallbladder excretory ducts uterine tube small bronchi uterus Pseudostratified Columnar Secrete mucus trachea upper respiratory tract Stratif1ed Squamous Protects tissues skin esophagus vagina mouth Stratif1ed Cuboidal Protection ducts of large glands Stratif1ed Columnar Protection male urethra pharynx Transitional Stretch for urine storage ureter bladder urethra Glands Usually columnar or cuboidal shaped Secretes into ducts free surfaces and blood Endocrine o Expels hormones into blood via exocytosis Exocrine o Secretes onto body surface or cavity 1 Unicellular a Mucous and goblet cells b Produce mucin glycoprotein that dissolves in water 2 Multicellular a Duct secretory unit b Simple duct unbranched amp compound duct branched CHAPTER 4 TISSUES c Units i Alveolar l Secretory cells form small sacs ii Tubular l Secretory cells form tubes iii Tubuloalveolar Exocrine Functions 0 Holocrine I Whole membrane ruptures I Plasma membrane rupturing to expel product amp dead cells I Ex sebaceous gland popping a pimple o Apocrine I Secretion buds off through plasma membrane I Forms a membranebound vesicle o Merocrine I Secrete product by exocytosis as it is being produced I Ex sweat and salivary o Mammary gland I Apocrine because it buds off the membrane I Merocrine because it is secreted While produced Connective Tissue Characteristics 1 All arises from mesenchyme embryonic tissue 2 Cells scattered Within extracellular matrix a Extracellular matrix is nonliving b Cells are spread out but held in place 3 Highly vascularized except for cartilage Extracellular Matrix 1 Ground Substance a Proteins amp uid that surround cells b Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell 2 Fibers a Collagen i Very strong thick bers ii Most abundant b Elastic i Stretchy material for good movement ii Made of elastin c Reticular i Tiny branched bers ii Made of collagen CHAPTER 4 TISSUES Cell Types 1 Macrophages a Eat molecules mainly bacteria b Break down foreign molecules through phagocytosis 2 Fibroblasts a Secrete bers that mature into brocytes 3 Lymphocytes a White blood cells leukocytes b Important for immune response 4 Mast Cells a In ammatory response 5 Adipocyte a Fat cell makes adipose b Stores nutrients and protects cells 4 Classes Connective Tissue Proper 1 Loose Connective Tissue a Areolar i Fibroblasts mast cells white blood cells macrophages ii Protection amp support cushions select organs important for in ammation 1 Soaks up excess uid during in ammation causing edema swelling of the handsfeet iii Under epithelium surrounds capillaries mucous membranes b Adipose i Closely packed with nucleus pushed to the side ii Supports protects insulates provides extra energy iii Under epithelium breasts kidneys amp eyeballs iv White fat stores nutrients v Brown fat has mitochondria that provides heat mainly found in infants because cannot move enough muscles to generate heat c Reticular i Highly branched thin bers ii Soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types iii Lymph organs spleen bone marrow lymph nodes 2 Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue a Dense Regular i Parallel collagen bers few elastic bers broblasts ii Withstands great force iii Tendons 1 Attach muscles to bone iv Ligaments l Attaches bone to bone 2 Has more elastic bers stretchy v Aponeuroses 1 Attach muscle to muscle or bone CHAPTER 4 TISSUES vi Fascia 1 Plastic wrap for muscles 2 Covers muscles to prevent fraying b Dense Irregular i lrregularly arranged collagen bers some elastic bers broblasts ii Withstands great tension structural strength iii Forms sheathes around organs amp joints dermis of skin c Dense Elastic i Similar to dense regular with more elastic bers ii Allows for recoil important in the heart amp lungs iii Wall of large arteries wall of bronchial tubes vertebral column Cartilage 1 Characteristics a Avascular i Gets nutrients from perichondrium b Matrix 80 water c Cells are called chondrocytes d Can withstand great tension amp compression 2 Hyaline a Glassy amp transparent b Amorphous has collagen bers chondroblasts c Support amp reinforce resist compressive stress d Embryonic skeleton end of long bone costal rib cartilage 3 Elastic a Similar to hyaline but with more elastic bers b Maintains shape but has considerable exibility c External ear pinna amp epiglottis 4 Fibrocartilage a Less rm than hyaline with thick collagen bers b Absorbs compressive shock c Intervertebral discs knee joints pubic symphsis Bone 1 Characteristics a Matrix i Mainly Calcium salts with collagen bers b Vascular c Cells called osteoblasts i Mature into osteocytes ii 1 osteocyte for every 1 lacuna iii Lacuna space in the cell 2 Compact a Osteon i Fundamental unit of the Haversian System b Lamella i Hard rings of calcium salts ii CHAPTER 4 TISSUES c Lacuna i Space containing the osteocyte d Central canal i Also called the Haversian Canal ii Contains blood vessels lymph vessels nerve cells e Volksman s canal i Also called the transverse canal ii Connects central canals f Canaliculi i Tiny canals between lacunae 3 Spongy a Not dense with pores b Trabeculae i Latticework of sheets and rods c Found on the ends of bones 4 Osseous Tissue a Hard calci ed vascular matrix with collagen bers osteocytes b Supports amp protects contains important minerals amp fats c Blood cell formation hematopoiesis in bone marrow Blood 1 Characteristics a Matrix is 90 water b Transports gases nutrients wastes amp other substances 2 Red Blood Cells a Erythrocyte b Mainly transports oxygen amp carbon dioxide c Has no nucleus with a biconcave disc shape 3 White Blood Cells a Leukocyte b 5 types Neutrophil Monocyte Basophil Eosinophil amp Lymphocyte c Nucleated 4 Platelets a Thrombocyte b Blood clotting Muscle Tissue l Skeletal a Ling cylindrical has striations made of myo laments multinucleate has tons of mitochondria b Voluntary movement of the skeleton c Sacrolemma plasma membrane of muscle d Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle 2 Cardiac a Branched striated has intercalated discs uninucleate b Involuntary movement of heart to propel blood c Cells connect at the intercalated discs like a gap junction CHAPTER 4 TISSUES 3 Smooth a Spindle shaped central nucleus no striations cells stay close together to form a sheet b Involuntary movement to propel substancesobjects food babies c In the walls of hollow organs Nervous l Nerve Cells a Neurons i Long branching cells ii Found in brain amp spinal cord amp nerves iii Transmits electrical impulses b Generate amp transmit electrical impulses c Dendrites receive amp respond to stimuli d Axon transmits electrical impulses throughout the body 2 Supporting Cells a Do not conduct impulses Membranes The beginning of organs 4 types 1 Cutaneous a Outer layer is keratinized strati ed squamous epithelium b Under layer is dense irregular connective tissue 2 Serous a Lines ventral cavity and organs b Layer of simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium c Under layer is areolar loose connective tissue 3 Mucous a Lines body cavities open to the exterior b Strati ed squamous epithelium or simple columnar epithelium c Under layer is areolar loose connective tissue 4 Synovial a Lines joint cavities b Loose areolar connective tissue and adipose


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