PSYC 3230 Cyterski
PSYC 3230 Cyterski 3230.0
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3230.0 at University of Georgia taught by Cyterski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
August 26 2015 o 3 features to guard against confounds 0 Control group 0 Random assignment 0 Blind design Models of Abnormality Cognitive the way you think Behavioral the way you behave Biological genetics body chemistry and medication Psychodynamic focuses on how past experiences affect you Humanistic quotunconditional love and supportquot Sociocultural examines social cultural and environmental background no single model can explain aspects P P PP NE Integration of the models Biopsychosocial theory is emerging DiasthesisStress Approach 0 Diasthesis predisposition for a disorder 0 Disorders that were brought on by stressors that there was a predisposition for 0 Protective factors things that prevent disorders from surfacing even though extreme stressors church strong family relationships When protective factors work for people they are exhibiting resiliency Integrative therapist are often called quoteclecticquot Biological Model 0 Medical perspective attributes brain abnormalities to problems with brain anatomychemistry Brain Anatomy 0 100 billion nerve cells called neurons make up 10 of brain 0 Thousands of billions of support cells called glia make up 90 of brain 0 Neurons don39t touch synaptic gap know structure of neuron N Ll ro ll r a nn 39DE DEIin Ra V39E39 mm Erai39rn C031 ITEM ion com August 28 2015 0 Know how action potentials work 0 Neurotransmitters released into synapse picked up by receptor proteins on dendrites of next neuron electrical impulse travels down axonmyelin sheath releases neurotransmitters into synaptic gap Genetics 0 Penetrance of people that will develop a disorder that they are genetically predisposed for Plasticity brain is malleable sometimes when people suffer brain injuries a different area of brain tissue can be trained to resume duties previously governed by injured tissue 0 Ex from class girl with epilepsy who had 12 of brain removed Psychodynamic perspective Freud rst comprehensive theory of personality Unconscious forces wishesmotives in uence behavior 0 Process of free association clients come into therapy and talk about whatever they want to Freudian Slips quotCapture Errorsquot 0 Freud claimed slips of the tongue aren39t accidents 0 Research today shows they are a result of passing too closely to an old memory while in a distracted state of mind 0 Ex from class Burger s research with male students amp fillintheblank sentences two different proctors Id vs Ego vs Superego Defense Mechanisms Ego 0 Protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Denial Repression Reaction formation admitting real feelings is upsetting so people react in the exact opposite way August 31 2015 Behavioral Model Bases explanations and treatments on principles of learning 0 Three types of ways to learn behavior 1 Operant conditioning behavior as a result of being rewarded 2 Modeling mimicking observed behavior 3 Classical Conditioning Pavlov dog experiment Must know differencebe able to pick out differences in experiment components on exam Unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response conditioned stimulus conditioned response 0 Exposure Therapy Systematic Desensitization 0 Used for phobias quotquickly and easily treatedquot 1 Taught relaxation 2 Build fear hierarchy 3 Imagine or confront one at a time D quotprogressive exposurequot Came to be seen as inadequate Cognitive Approach 0 Beck 0 Point was to recognize and chance dysfunctional thinking 0 Combination of behavioral and cognitive therapies cognitivebehavioral therapy CBT 0 Very effective commonly treats personalization arbitrary inference jumping to conclusions overgeneralization minimizationmaximization and selective thinking 0 Schizophrenia and other severe disorders can also be treated with CBT Humanistic Model 0 Rogers PersonCentered Therapy 0 Nondirective insight therapy gets person to re ect amp discover insight on their own 0 Clinicians convey acceptance empathy authenticity and re ection Today39s Models Vary widely Integration of models are used biopsychosocial treating problems with biological therapies can change behavior and treating problems cognitive problems can cause biological changes 0 Ex from class 0CD brain activity before vs after behavioral therapies September 2 2014 Chapter 3 Characteristics of assessment tools Tests can be reliable but not valid amp vice versa DSMV classi cation system manual of mental disorders 0 Removed certain categories ex Autism now an umbrella term Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinical Interviews 0 Guides clinician in what major problems will be issues that should be revisited in later visits Rapport important to establish a good relationship put client at ease reserving judgement quotcreating an atmosphere of trustquot Psychological Tests Psychophysiological Tests heart rate BP body temp muscle tension galvanic skin response two electrodes on forearm generate electrical pulse measure time that it takes for pulse to leave one electrode to the other 0 People are told the questions they will be asked ahead of time 0 Some states have banned polygraph evidence being accepted in court 23 but some states allow voluntary polygraphs 0 Most popular is polygraph Relevantirrelevant technique some questions asked are relevant to the crime some are not don39t always supply a legitimate baseline for various reasons Comparison question CQT control questions rather than just be irrelevant questions questions are designed to illicit emotional responses which then serves as the baseline of comparison 1020 inconclusive results September 4 2015 Accuracy of the Polygraph American Polygraph Association claims quot98 accuracyquot but recent research nds accuracy rates around 7080 0 Confessions are the measure of accuracy if polygraph says they were lying and then the criminal gives a confession that is considered quotaccuratequot Hard to tell tho what about deceptive polygraphs When an innocent person quotfailsquot the polygraph and then never admits Results in lots of false positives and false negatives know difference 0 False Positives when detector says person is lying but the person is actually innocent False Negative detector says criminal was innocent but in fact they were guilty 0 Alternative Techniques to detect lies other than a polygraph video in class 0 record of crime is quotstored in the brainquot 0 Scienti c technique measuring brain waves to detect information of a crime in the brain 0 When you recognize something there are speci c impulses that re in the brain that can be detected called p300 electrical activity 0 Words and pictures ash on a screen some relevant to crime and others not when brain recognizes something it will be detected 0 What if this info was leaked Highly publicized doesn t prove that person was innocent or guilty just demonstrates knowledge of info that hopefully only the perp would know evidence not proof 0 Form of EEG Neurological Tests Directly assessing brain function and structure 0 EEG PET scans CAT scans MRI fMRI Neuropsychological Tests Indirectly assessing problems in brain functioning o Perceptual emotional attention difficulties 0 Been around much longer than direct imaging tests 0 Usually a battery of test Continuous Performance Test CPT attention executive functioning etc ask someone to click a mouse for ones but not twos o Clicking lots of ones then still clicking a two Error of commission unable to restrict an impulse 0 Not clicking for lots of twos and then missing a click for a one Error of omission lack of attentiveness TOVA Test of Variables of Attention For ADHD measures attention and impulsivity Bender VisualMotor Gestalt Test Trailmaking test essentially a connectthedots attention Personality Inventories o Selfinventory 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI most reliablevalid o 500 tfcs questions 0 10 scales 0 Has questions that are designed to tell if you are lying
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