Week 3 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Video In the Womb Notes 1 After fertilization the fertilized egg or zygote begins to divide creating a tiny bundle of cells known as the blastocyst 2 On what day do the nerve cells that will become the brain begin to form Day 15 3 After which week does the embryo become a fetus 8 weeks 4 What is the purpose of the placenta Feeding nurturing providing nutrients filtering waste and producing hormones When does the fetus s body begin to move 9 weeks Which develop first hand or feet Hands 7 When does the mother become aware of the fetus s movements for the first time 18 weeks 8 Can the fetus see in the womb N0 9 When is the earliest that a baby can be born and still have a good chance of survival 6 months 10 How many babies born before 26 weeks develop disabilities or learning difficulties Nearly 12 of all 11 Do 24weekold fetuses have taste buds Yes 12 At three months old which is the fetus s most developed sense Hearing 13What is the loudest sound a fetus will ever hear Ultrasound loudest when probe is toward the baby s ear 14 How much time do 26weekold fetuses spend asleep 90 of time sleeping 15 How fast does the fetus s heart beat Twice as fast as her mother s 16 What is the last organ to form Lungs 17 Do fetuses dream Yes 18 During which stage of labor does delivery take place Second stage of labor 9 5 Maternal Characteristics and Their Effects on Prenatal Development Age 0 70 year old woman from India is oldest woman to give birth 0 first pregnancy when under 16 or over 40 increases the risks 0 why I For mothers under 16 Risks come from environmental issueseffects such as poverty poor nutrition high stress lack of prenatal care Risks decrease with good prenatal care and social support I For mothers over 40 More difficulty conceiving due to fewer eggs less healthy eggs Increased risk of miscarriage due to genetic abnormalities Increased risk of genetic conditions like Down s Syndrome by 40 risk is 1 in 100 Increased risk of complications during pregnancy delivery 0 Placental complications 0 Ectopic pregnancy egg plants in fallopian tubes Diet 0 Recommend gaining 25 to 35 pounds during pregnancy which provides more healthy outcomes for the infant 0 Effects of malnutrition depend on timing can include miscarriage low birth weight decreased brain development 0 Recommend taking prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement to hit recommended allowances I Folic acid B complex vitamin Prevents neural tube defects and spine abifida I Magnesium Zinc Help placenta function well Emotional Condition 0 High stress release of hormones which cross placental barrier I Does not prevent passing of hormones in heart rate breathing tone of voice 0 Occasional temporary stress no lasting consequences a little stress is good 0 Long term severe stress may low birth weight premature birth I Ex stress of mourning a loved one can cause this I After birth babies are more irritable active and irregular I Longterm effect increased risk of symptoms of ADHD anxiety I Major stress during middle part of pregnancy related to more risk for child to have autism I Results are correlational 0 Ability to cope with stress may be more important than the amount of stress I Social support and counseling help 0 Increased risk if I Unhappy about marriage or pregnancy I No social support Teratogens Any disease drug or environmental agent that can harm the prenatal organism 0 Can be legal or illegal drugs Effects of teratogen on body part or organ system are worst during sensitive period of body organ 0 Sensitive period time when an organism is highly sensitive to environmental in uences chart with examples on page 76 of book 0 When something is forming that is the most sensitive period Not all embryosfetuses equally affected because there are different tolerant levels 0 Native Americans are particularly susceptive to alcohol Same defect can be caused by different teratogens variety of defects can be caused by same teratogen o What is affected depends on what is being developed at the time Father s exposure may also cause problems 0 If father is older this can cause problems Longterm effects of the teratogens often depend on quality of postnatal environment Despite risks majority born without abnormalities OR with treatable conditions Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Infant Perinatal During Birth Environment Social and medical environment surrounding birth 0 In Us vast majority of births done in hospital 3 stages ofbirth process 0 1St Stage regular contraction begin until cervix is dilated I Contractions of uterus occur regularly I Pulling cervix back stretching I Cervix thins opens until dilated to 10 cm I Average 824 hours longer for first birth if never given birth before takes the longest o 2rld stage delivery of baby I With each contraction overwhelming urge to push baby out I Mother pushes fetus is delivered I Average the push takes 12 hour to 1 12 hours 0 3rd stage delivery of placenta I Fastest stage lasts only minutes I After delivered docs will check placenta to see if healthy Cesarean Section Incision made through abdominal wall and into uterus 0 Infant and placenta removed through opening 0 Done horizontally Used for many reasons 0 Ex fetal distress slow labor progression multiple births breech births when the butt is coming out first instead of the head or the baby is sideways certain STIs Infants born by Csections have greater risk of breathing difficulties Mothers recovery 68 weeks 0 Mother at increased risk of infection complications during future pregnancies Birth Complications Low birth weight 0 Less than 5 12 pounds O 0 Average good weight is 7 12 pounds Very low birth weight less than 2 11 pounds Preterm O 0 1st kind of birth weight Born too early before 37 weeks I Born before 25 weeks 50 chance of survival Small for date 0 O O O 2rld kind of birth weight Birth weight far below normal even when born full term Rarer and is worse At greater risk for complications More likely to die in infancy Caused of low birth weight and prematurity O 0 50 unknown Maybe because small parents multiple births known for low birth weight Placenta problems Maternalenvironmental factors such as poverty malnutrition drug use lack of prenatal care age stress I Babies who do not have fathers involved are more likely to be a lower birth weight Complications caused by low birth weight OOOOOOO Breathing difficulties Underdeveloped sensory systems haven t finished developing them Difficulty forming secure attachments to caregivers Learning difficulties lower IQs Higher risk for heart disease type 2 diabetes Smaller earlier born greater risks Complications again depend on quality of life after birth
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